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date: 26 October 2021

  • Symbols and abbreviations

    don’t dawdle

  • decreased

  • increased

  • leading to

  • female

  • male

  • primary

  • secondary

  • ~

    approximately

  • approximately equal to

  • ±

    plus/minus

  • >

    greater than

  • <

    less than

  • equal to or more than

  • °

    degree

  • °C

    degree celsius

  • α‎

    alpha

  • β‎

    beta

  • γ‎

    gamma

  • +ve

    positive

  • £

    pound sterling

  • ®

    registered trademark

  • α‎1-AT

    α‎1-antitrypsin

  • A–a

    alveolar to arterial gradient

  • Ab

    antibody

  • ABG

    arterial blood gas

  • ABPA

    allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

  • ACCP

    American College of Chest Physicians

  • ACE

    angiotensin-converting enzyme

  • AChR

    acetylcholine receptor

  • ACTH

    adenocorticotropic hormone

  • ADH

    antidiuretic hormone

  • A&E

    accident and emergency

  • AF

    atrial fibrillation

  • AFB

    acid-fast bacillus; autofluorescent bronchoscopy

  • AFP

    alpha-fetoprotein

  • AIA

    aspirin-induced asthma

  • AIDS

    acquired immune deficiency syndrome

  • AIP

    acute interstitial pneumonia

  • AJCC

    American Joint Committee on Cancer

  • alkaline phosphatase

  • ALT

    alanine aminotransaminase

  • AMTS

    abbreviated mental test score

  • ANA

    antinuclear antibody

  • ANCA

    antinuclear cytoplasmic antibody

  • ANP

    atrial natriuretic peptide

  • APC

    argon–plasma coagulation

  • APTT

    activated partial thromboplastin time

  • ARDS

    acute respiratory distress syndrome

  • ART

    antiretroviral therapy

  • AST

    aspartate aminotransferase

  • ASV

    adaptive servo-ventilation

  • ATRA

    all-trans retinoic acid

  • ATS

    American Thoracic Society

  • AV

    arteriovenous

  • AVM

    arteriovenous malformation

  • BHCG

    beta human chorionic gonadotrophin

  • BAL

    bronchoalveolar lavage

  • BCG

    bacille Calmette–Guérin

  • bd

    twice a day

  • BDP

    beclomethasone

  • BHR

    bronchial hyperreactivity or hyperresponsiveness

  • BiPAP

    bi-level positive airways pressure

  • bLVR

    bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

  • BMI

    body mass index (kg/m2)

  • BNP

    B-type natriuretic peptide

  • BOOP

    bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia

  • BOS

    bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome

  • BP

    blood pressure

  • BPD

    bronchopulmonary dysplasia

  • bpm

    beats per minute

  • BSAC

    British Sub-Aqua Club

  • BTS

    British Thoracic Society

  • CABG

    coronary artery bypass graft

  • CAP

    community-acquired pneumonia

  • CCB

    calcium channel blocker

  • CCF

    congestive cardiac failure

  • CCPA

    chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis

  • CF

    cystic fibrosis

  • CFA

    cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

  • CFT

    complement fixation test

  • CFTR

    cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

  • cfu

    colony-forming unit

  • CHART

    continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy

  • chromosome

  • CI

    contraindication

  • CK

    creatine kinase

  • Cl

    chloride ion

  • CLD

    chronic lung disease

  • CLL

    chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

  • cm

    centimetre

  • cmH2O

    centimetre of water

  • CMV

    cytomegalovirus

  • CNS

    central nervous system

  • CO

    carbon monoxide

  • CO2

    carbon dioxide

  • COHb

    carboxyhaemoglobin

  • COP

    cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

  • COPD

    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • CPAP

    continuous positive airway pressure

  • CPD

    continuous professional development

  • CPET

    cardiopulmonary exercise testing

  • CPK

    creatine phosphokinase

  • CPPE

    complicated parapneumonic effusion

  • CRP

    C-reactive protein

  • CSA

    central sleep apnoea

  • CSF

    cerebrospinal fluid

  • CT

    computed tomography

  • CTPA

    computed tomographic pulmonary angiogram

  • CTEPH

    chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

  • CVA

    cerebrovascular accident

  • CVD

    cardiovascular disease

  • CVP

    central venous pressure

  • CXR

    chest radiograph

  • 2D

    two-dimensional

  • 3D

    three-dimensional

  • DEXA

    dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

  • DFA

    direct fluorescent antibody

  • DIC

    disseminated intravascular coagulation

  • DIF

    direct immunofluorescence test

  • DIOS

    distal intestinal obstructive syndrome

  • DIP

    desquamative interstitial pneumonitis

  • dL

    decilitre

  • DM

    dermatomyositis

  • DNA

    deoxyribonucleic acid

  • DOT

    directly observed therapy (usually tuberculosis)

  • DPI

    dry powder inhaler

  • dsDNA

    double-stranded DNA

  • DVLA

    Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency

  • deep vein thrombosis

  • dyn

    dyne

  • EBUS

    endoscopic bronchial ultrasound

  • EBV

    Epstein–Barr virus

  • ECG

    electrocardiogram

  • echo

    echocardiogram

  • ECOG

    Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

  • EEG

    electroencephalogram

  • eGFR

    estimated glomerular filtration rate

  • EGFR

    epidermal growth factor receptor

  • EGPA

    eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg–Strauss syndrome)

  • EIA

    enzyme immunoassay

  • ELCAP

    Early Lung Cancer Action Project

  • ELISA

    enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

  • EMG

    electromyogram

  • EMU

    early morning urine

  • ENA

    extractable nuclear antigen

  • ENT

    ear, nose, and throat

  • EOG

    electro-oculogram

  • EPAP

    expiratory positive airways pressure

  • ERA

    endothelin receptor antagonist

  • ERS

    European Respiratory Society

  • ESR

    erythrocyte sedimentation rate

  • ESS

    Epworth sleepiness scale/score

  • EUS-FNA

    endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration

  • EVLP

    ex vivo lung perfusion

  • FBC

    full blood count

  • FDA

    Food and Drug Administration

  • FDG-PET

    18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

  • feNO

    fraction of nitric oxide

  • FEV1

    forced expiratory volume in 1s

  • FiCO2

    fractional inspired carbon dioxide

  • FiO2

    fractional inspired oxygen

  • FNA

    fine-needle aspirate

  • FOB

    fibre optic bronchoscopy

  • FPAH

    familial pulmonary arterial hypertension

  • FRC

    functional residual capacity

  • ft

    foot

  • FVC

    forced vital capacity

  • g

    gram

  • GABA

    G-aminobutyric acid

  • GBM

    glomerular basement membrane

  • GCS

    Glasgow coma scale

  • GI

    gastrointestinal

  • General Medical Council

  • GM-CSF

    granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

  • GORD

    gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

  • GP

    general practitioner

  • GPA

    granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s)

  • GVHD

    graft-versus-host disease

  • Gy

    gray

  • h

    hour

  • H+

    hydrogen ion

  • H2

    histamine receptors, type 2

  • HAART

    highly active antiretroviral therapy

  • HACE

    high altitude cerebral oedema

  • HADS

    Hospital Anxiety and Depression score

  • HAPE

    high altitude pulmonary oedema

  • Hb

    haemoglobin

  • HCG

    human chorionic gonadotrophin

  • HCO3

    bicarbonate ion

  • HDU

    high dependency unit

  • HFOV

    high-frequency oscillatory ventilation

  • HHT

    hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

  • HIV

    human immunodeficiency virus

  • HLA

    human leucocyte antigen

  • HOCF

    Home Oxygen Consent Form

  • HOOF

    home oxygen order form

  • HP

    hypersensitivity pneumonitis

  • HPLC

    high-performance liquid chromatography

  • HPOA

    hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy

  • HPS

    hepatopulmonary syndrome

  • HPV

    human papillomavirus

  • HR

    heart rate

  • HRCT

    high resolution computed tomography

  • HRT

    hormone replacement therapy

  • HSCT

    haematopoietic stem cell transplant

  • HSV

    herpes simplex virus

  • Hz

    hertz

  • IBD

    inflammatory bowel disease

  • ICSI

    intracytoplasmic sperm injection

  • ICU

    intensive care unit

  • IFN-G

    interferon gamma

  • IgE

    immunoglobulin E

  • IgG

    immunoglobulin G

  • IgM

    immunoglobulin M

  • IGRA

    interferon G release assay

  • IIP

    idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

  • interleukin

  • ILD

    interstitial lung disease

  • IM

    intramuscular

  • in

    inch

  • INR

    international normalized ratio

  • IPAH

    idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

  • IPAP

    inspiratory positive airways pressure

  • IPC

    indwelling pleural catheter

  • IPF

    idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  • IRIS

    immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

  • ITU

    intensive therapy unit

  • IU

    international units

  • IV

    intravenous

  • IVAD

    implantable venous access device

  • IVC

    inferior vena cava

  • IVDU

    intravenous drug user

  • JVP

    jugular venous pressure

  • K+

    potassium ion

  • kCO

    carbon monoxide transfer factor coefficient

  • kg

    kilogram

  • kHz

    kilohertz

  • km

    kilometre

  • kPa

    kilopascal

  • L

    litre

  • LABA

    long-acting B2 agonist

  • LAM

    lymphangioleiomyomatosis

  • LCH

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis

  • LDH

    lactate dehydrogenase

  • LEMS

    Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome

  • LFT

    liver function test

  • LIP

    lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

  • LMWH

    low molecular weight heparin

  • LOS

    lower oesophageal sphincter

  • LPA

    lasting power of attorney

  • LTOT

    long-term oxygen therapy

  • LV

    left ventricle/ventricular

  • LVF

    left ventricular failure

  • LVRS

    lung volume reduction surgery

  • m

    metre

  • MAC

    Mycobacterium avium complex

  • MAI

    Mycobacterium avium intracellulare

  • M,

    C, & S microscopy, culture, and sensitivity

  • MCV

    mean corpuscular volume

  • MDI

    metered dose inhaler

  • multidrug-resistant TB

  • MDT

    multidisciplinary team

  • MEN

    multiple endocrine neoplasia

  • meq

    milliequivalent

  • MERS

    Middle East respiratory syndrome

  • MERS-CoV

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

  • mg

    milligram

  • MGUS

    monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance

  • MHRA

    Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency

  • MHz

    megahertz

  • MI

    myocardial infarction

  • min

    minute

  • mL

    millilitre

  • MMF

    mycophenolate mofetil

  • mmHg

    millimetre of mercury

  • mmol

    millimole

  • MND

    motor neurone disease

  • mosmol

    milliosmole

  • MPA

    microscopic polyangiitis

  • MPO

    myeloperoxidase

  • MRC

    Medical Research Council

  • MRI

    magnetic resonance imaging

  • mRNA

    messenger ribonucleic acid

  • MRSA

    meticillin (or multiply) resistant Staphylococcus aureus

  • ms

    millisecond

  • mSv

    millisievert

  • MTB

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • mTOR

    mammalian target of rapamycin

  • MU

    megaunit

  • MVV

    maximum voluntary ventilation

  • 6MWT

    6 minute walking test

  • N

    newton

  • Na+

    sodium ion

  • NaCl

    sodium chloride

  • NEWS

    National Early Warning Score

  • ng

    nanogram

  • NG

    nasogastric

  • NHS

    National Health Service

  • NICE

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

  • NCEPOD

    National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death

  • NIMV

    non-invasive mechanical ventilation

  • NIPPV

    non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

  • NIV

    non-invasive ventilation

  • nmol

    nanomole

  • NNRTI

    non-nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor

  • nitric oxide

  • NO2

    nitrogen dioxide

  • non-REM

    non-rapid eye movement sleep

  • NPSA

    National Patient Safety Agency

  • NRT

    nicotine replacement therapy

  • NSAID

    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

  • NSCLC

    non-small cell lung cancer

  • NSIP

    non-specific interstitial pneumonia

  • NTM

    non-tuberculous mycobacteria

  • NT-proBNP

    N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide

  • NYHA

    New York Heart Association

  • O2

    oxygen

  • OCP

    oral contraceptive pill

  • od

    once a day

  • OGD

    oesophagogastroduodenoscopy

  • OP

    organizing pneumonia

  • OSA

    obstructive sleep apnoea

  • OSAH

    obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea

  • OSAS

    obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

  • p

    probability

  • PA

    posteroanterior

  • PaCO2

    arterial carbon dioxide tension

  • PAF

    platelet-activating factor

  • PAH

    pulmonary arterial hypertension

  • PAN

    polyarteritis nodosa

  • PaO2

    arterial oxygen tension

  • PAP

    pulmonary artery pressure

  • PAS

    para-aminosalicylic acid

  • PAVM

    pulmonary arteriovenous malformation

  • PC20

    provocative concentration (of histamine or methacholine) causing a 20% fall in FEV1

  • PCD

    primary ciliary dyskinesia

  • PCO2

    carbon dioxide tension

  • PCP

    Pneumocystis carinii (now jirovecii) pneumonia

  • PCR

    polymerase chain reaction

  • PDE

    phosphodiesterase

  • PDE-5

    phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor

  • PDT

    photodynamic therapy

  • PE

    pulmonary embolus

  • PEEP

    positive end expiratory pressure

  • PEF

    peak expiratory flow

  • PEFR

    peak expiratory flow rate

  • PEG

    percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

  • PESI

    pulmonary embolism severity index

  • PET

    positron emission tomography

  • pulmonary function test

  • PHT

    pulmonary hypertension

  • Pi

    protease inhibitor

  • PM

    polymyositis

  • PMF

    progressive massive fibrosis

  • PO

    orally/by mouth

  • PO2

    oxygen tension

  • PO4

    phosphate ion

  • POPH

    porto-pulmonary hypertension

  • ppb

    part per billion

  • PPH

    primary pulmonary hypertension

  • PPI

    proton pump inhibitor

  • PPO

    predicted post-operative

  • PR

    pulmonary rehabilitation

  • PR3

    proteinase 3

  • PRF

    pulse repetition frequency

  • prn

    as required

  • PSA

    prostate-specific antigen

  • PSB

    protected specimen brush

  • PSG

    polysomnography

  • PSI

    Pneumonia Severity Index

  • PT

    prothrombin time; percutaneous tracheostomy

  • PTH

    parathyroid hormone

  • PVL-SA

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus

  • QALY

    quality-adjusted life year

  • qds

    four times a day

  • QoL

    quality of life

  • RA

    rheumatoid arthritis

  • RAD

    right axis deviation

  • RAST

    radioallergosorbent test

  • RBBB

    right bundle branch block

  • RB-ILD

    respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease

  • RCP

    Royal College of Physicians

  • RCT

    randomized controlled trial

  • REM

    rapid eye movement

  • RER

    respiratory exchange ratio

  • RFA

    radiofrequency ablation

  • RHC

    right heart catheterization

  • RhF

    rheumatoid factor

  • RNA

    ribonucleic acid

  • RQ

    respiratory quotient

  • RNP

    ribonuclear protein

  • RR

    respiratory rate

  • RSV

    respiratory syncytial virus

  • reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

  • RV

    residual volume; right ventricle/ventricular

  • RVH

    right ventricular hypertrophy

  • s

    second

  • SABR

    stereotactic ablative radiotherapy

  • SaO2

    arterial oxygen saturation (usually a percentage)

  • SAP

    serum amyloid P

  • SARS

    severe acquired respiratory syndrome

  • SARS-CoV

    SARS-coronavirus

  • SBE

    subacute bacterial endocarditis

  • SBOT

    short-burst oxygen therapy

  • SBRT

    stereotactic body radiation therapy

  • SC

    subcutaneous

  • SCIT

    subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy

  • SCL-70

    scleroderma antibody (to topoisomerase 1)

  • SCLC

    small cell lung cancer

  • SCUBA

    self-contained underwater breathing apparatus

  • SE

    side effect

  • SEMAS

    self-expanding metal airway stent

  • SF-36

    Short Form-36

  • SIADH

    syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH

  • SLE

    systemic lupus erythematosus

  • SO2

    sulphur dioxide

  • SO4

    sulphate ion

  • SOB

    shortness of breath

  • spp.

    Species

  • SPPE

    simple parapneumonic effusion

  • SUV

    standardized uptake value

  • SVC

    superior vena cava

  • SVCO

    superior vena caval obstruction

  • SWT

    shuttle walk test

  • TB

    tuberculosis

  • TBB

    transbronchial biopsy

  • TBNA

    transbronchial needle aspiration

  • tds

    three times a day

  • TENS

    transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

  • TFT

    thyroid function test

  • TGC

    time gain compensation

  • TGF

    transforming growth factor

  • Th2

    T helper 2 cell

  • TIA

    transient ischaemic attack

  • TIPS

    transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

  • TLC

    total lung capacity

  • TLCO

    total lung carbon monoxide transfer factor

  • tumour necrosis factor

  • tPA

    tissue plasminogen activator

  • TPMT

    thiopurine methyltransferase

  • TR

    tricuspid regurgitation

  • TRALI

    transfusion-related acute lung injury

  • TSH

    thyroid-stimulating hormone

  • TTR

    transthyretin

  • TU

    tuberculin unit

  • TUS

    thoracic ultrasound

  • U

    unit

  • UACS

    upper airway cough syndrome

  • U&E

    urea and electrolytes

  • UICC

    Union for International Cancer Control

  • UIP

    usual interstitial pneumonia

  • UK

    United Kingdom

  • URTI

    upper respiratory tract infection

  • US

    ultrasound

  • USA

    United States of America

  • USS

    ultrasound scan

  • UTI

    urinary tract infection

  • VAP

    ventilator-associated pneumonia

  • VAPSP

    volume-assured pressure support ventilation

  • VATS

    video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

  • VC

    vital capacity

  • VCD

    vocal cord dysfunction

  • VKA

    vitamin K antagonist

  • V/Q

    ventilation-perfusion ratio

  • vs

    versus

  • VTE

    venous thromboembolism

  • WCC

    white cell count

  • WHO

    World Health Organization

  • XDR-TB

    extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis

  • y

    year

  • YAG

    yttrium–aluminium–garnet

  • ZN

    Ziehl–Neelsen