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Respiratory infection—bacterial 

Respiratory infection—bacterial
Respiratory infection—bacterial

Stephen Chapman

, Grace Robinson

, John Stradling

, Sophie West

, and John Wrightson

Page of

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date: 20 January 2020

This chapter covers all aspects of the diagnosis and management of community and hospital acquired pneumonia. Community-acquired pneumonia represents the commonest infectious cause of death in the UK and USA. Up to 10% require ITU admission where mortality remains at 50%. The predisposing conditions are discussed. This chapter includes guidance on community-acquired pneumonia severity scores and antibiotic choice, based on the recent British Thoracic Society guidelines. Strategies for patients who may need ITU care, who fail to respond to initial antibiotics, and who need follow-up after pneumonia are discussed. Other forms of respiratory infection are covered, including their aetiology and their management. These include ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP), aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess (including Lemierre’s syndrome), nocardiosis, actinomycosis, anthrax, tularaemia, melioidosis, and leptospirosis. The differential diagnosis of fever and CXR infiltrates in a patient on ITU is highlighted.

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