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Cancer: epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management 

Cancer: epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management
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date: 18 October 2019

The most important risk factor for cancer is age and many age-associated molecular and cellular changes explain this relationship. The most important aspect of this relationship is the passage of time, which enables the multihit mutation process, resulting in the development of clinical cancer and contributing to the altered physiological environment that allows the full manifestation of these molecular mutations. At the cellular level, the double-edged sword process of cellular senescence will substantially contribute by creating an inflammatory milieu that supports increased tumorigenesis. Genomic instability that is closely related to cellular senescence, as well as epigenetic changes, will also play an important role. Nevertheless, there are strategies to decrease the lifelong increase of cancer incidence via nutrition, exercise, genetic manipulations, and pharmacological interventions. The discovery of biomarkers in the perspective of personalized medicine will also be a major breakthrough to improve cancer prevention and treatment in older people.

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