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Francisco J. Blanco

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date: 27 January 2022

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease related to ageing involving cartilage degradation, synovial inflammation, subchondral bone sclerosis, degeneration of ligaments and, in the knee, the menisci and hypertrophy of the joint capsule. Other alterations, in periarticular muscles, nerves, bursa, and local fat pads, also contribute to OA. Some risk factors are associated with OA and it is possible to differentiate between risk factors that confer a generalized susceptibility to OA, such as age, osteoporosis, heredity, and gender, and the differing local biomechanical factors of joints, such as trauma, anatomical variance of the articulation, occupational exposures, and obesity. The treatment of osteoarthritis should be individualized and adjusted to the joint affected. The objectives are to control pain, maintain function, and to slow progression. Treatment of OA can be considered in symptom-modifying and structure-modifying treatments.

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