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Midlife risk factors of diseases and geriatric syndromes 

Midlife risk factors of diseases and geriatric syndromes
Chapter:
Midlife risk factors of diseases and geriatric syndromes
Author(s):

Timo E. Strandberg

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198701590.003.0163
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date: 18 August 2019

Environmental risk factors for adverse health outcomes are usually evident by midlife. Genes and the ageing process modify the risk factor actions, and together become the main causes of chronic non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and the most common forms of cancer (breast, prostate, colon) later in life. The most important lifestyle-related or environmental risk factors include diet, smoking, and physical inactivity, which often contribute to traditional or medical risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia, which are the downstream antecedents of many other disease states. Further, it is increasingly evident that the occurrence of common geriatric syndromes, including frailty and mild cognitive impairment, can also be predicted by midlife risk factors. Current knowledge of risk factor development during the life course, and evidence-based prevention should be better utilized in the long-term prevention of health problems in old age.

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