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Cognitive impairment—risk factors and prevention 

Cognitive impairment—risk factors and prevention
Cognitive impairment—risk factors and prevention

Francesca Mangialasche

, Tiia Ngandu

, and Miia Kivipelto

Page of

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date: 17 May 2022

Cognitive impairment is common in advanced age, with dementia representing the main cause of disability in older adults. Prevention is crucial to halt the pandemic increase of this disorder, and can be achieved by managing several risk factors, including vascular and metabolic disorders, and psychosocial and lifestyle-related factors. While evidence-based approaches still need to be defined, the multifactorial and heterogeneous nature of late-life cognitive impairment suggests that multicomponent interventions targeting several risk factors simultaneously are needed for optimal preventive effects. A life course approach should also be considered to identify strategies that can be efficacious for subjects of different ages and with different risk profiles. This chapter summarizes major findings on risk and protective factors for age-related cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease, and reviews key aspects of preventive strategies, focusing on primary and secondary prevention.

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