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Parkinsonism, Parkinson’s disease, and related conditions 

Parkinsonism, Parkinson’s disease, and related conditions
Parkinsonism, Parkinson’s disease, and related conditions

John V. Hindle

, Sion Jones

, and Glesni Davies

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date: 01 July 2022

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized clinically by fatiguable bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor and pathologically by deposition of Lewy bodies and cell loss in the substantia nigra and other brain regions. Parkinsonism is the term used to describe the clinical features of conditions resembling PD. Their management requires specialist assessment and a multidisciplinary approach. Levodopa remains the mainstay of treatment for PD. Although other treatments are used, older people are more sensitive to their side effects. Non-motor symptoms, particularly neuropsychiatric problems, significantly impact quality of life and need special consideration in older people. Towards the later stage of the disease, management can be complex, and should involve advanced care planning.

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