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date: 09 May 2021

  • decreased

  • increased

  • Symbols and abbreviations


  • Symbols and abbreviations


  • ABG

    arterial blood gas

  • ACE

    angiotensin-converting enzyme

  • ACS

    acute coronary syndrome

  • ACT

    activated clotting time

  • ADH

    antidiuretic hormone

  • AFB

    acid-fast bacilli

  • AFE

    amniotic fluid embolism

  • AKI

    acute kidney injury

  • ALL

    acute lymphatic leukaemia

  • ALS

    advanced life support

  • ALT

    alanine aminotransferase

  • AML

    acute myeloid leukaemia


    Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II

  • APC

    antigen-presenting cell

  • APRV

    airway pressure release ventilation

  • APTT

    activated partial thromboplastin time

  • ARDS

    acute respiratory distress syndrome

  • AST

    aspartate aminotransferase

  • ATLS

    advanced trauma life support

  • AV


  • AVPU

    Alert Verbal Pain Unresponsive


    British Association of Critical Care Nurses

  • BIS

    Bispectral Index

  • BMI

    body mass index

  • BPAP

    bi-level positive airway pressure

  • BPS

    Behavioural Pain Scale

  • BSD

    brainstem death


    Confusion Assessment Method-ICU

  • chronic lymphatic leukaemia

  • CML

    chronic myeloid leukaemia

  • CMV

    controlled manual ventilation; cytomegalovirus

  • CNS

    central nervous system

  • COPD

    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • CPAP

    continuous positive airway pressure

  • CPP

    cerebral perfusion pressure

  • CRP

    C-reactive protein

  • CSF

    cerebrospinal fluid

  • CSW

    cerebral salt wasting

  • CT

    computerized tomography

  • CVP

    central venous pressure

  • CVS

    cardiovascular system

  • CVVH

    continuous venovenous haemofiltration


    continuous venovenous haemodialysis


    continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration

  • DI

    diabetes insipidus

  • DIC

    disseminated intravascular coagulation

  • DIS

    daily interruption of sedation

  • DKA

    diabetic ketoacidosis

  • DVT

    deep vein thrombosis

  • ECG


  • ECMO

    extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

  • EEG


  • ERCP

    endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

  • ETCO2

    end-tidal carbon dioxide

  • ETT

    endotracheal tube

  • EVD

    external ventricular drain

  • EVLW

    extravascular lung water

  • FBC

    full blood count

  • FFP

    fresh frozen plasma

  • FiO2

    fractionated inspired oxygen concentration

  • FRC

    functional residual capacity

  • FTc

    corrected flow time

  • GBS

    Guillain–Barré syndrome

  • Glasgow Coma Scale

  • GEDV

    global end-diastolic volume

  • GFR

    glomerular filtration rate

  • GMC

    General Medical Council

  • GRV

    gastric residual volume

  • GTN

    glyceryl trinitrate

  • h


  • HADS

    Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

  • Hb



    haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets

  • HEPA

    high-efficiency particulate air

  • HES

    hydroxyethyl starch

  • HHS

    hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state

  • HIT

    heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

  • HIV

    human immunodeficiency virus

  • HUS

    haemolytic uraemic syndrome


    Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist

  • ICP

    intracranial pressure

  • ICS

    Intensive Care Society

  • ICU

    intensive care unit

  • IHD

    intermittent haemodialysis

  • INR

    international normalized ratio

  • IPPV

    intermittent positive pressure ventilation

  • ITBV

    intra-thoracic blood volume

  • ITP

    idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

  • IV


  • IVIG

    intravenous immunoglobulin

  • JVP

    jugular venous pressure

  • L


  • LBBB

    left bundle branch block

  • LFT

    liver function test

  • LiDCO

    lithium dilution cardiac output

  • LMWH

    low-molecular-weight heparin

  • LOC

    level of consciousness

  • LVF

    left ventricular failure

  • mean arterial pressure

  • MC&S

    microscopy, culture, and sensitivity

  • MI

    myocardial infarction

  • min


  • MODS

    Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score; multi-organ dysfunction syndrome

  • MRI

    magnetic resonance imaging

  • MV

    minute volume

  • NEWS

    National Early Warning Score

  • NICE

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

  • NIV

    non-invasive ventilation

  • NMBA

    neuromuscular blocking agent


    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug


    non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

  • PA

    pulmonary artery

  • PaCO2

    partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide

  • PaO2

    partial pressure of arterial oxygen

  • PAO2

    partial pressure of alveolar oxygen

  • PAOP

    pulmonary artery occlusion pressure

  • PAP

    pulmonary artery pressure

  • PAWP

    pulmonary artery wedge pressure

  • PCA

    patient-controlled analgesia

  • PCC

    prothrombin complex concentrate

  • PCI

    percutaneous coronary intervention

  • PCV

    packed cell volume

  • PE

    pulmonary embolism

  • PEA

    pulseless electrical activity

  • PEEP

    positive end expiratory pressure

  • PEFR

    peak expiratory flow rate

  • PEJ

    percutaneous jejunostomy

  • PET

    positron emission tomography

  • PiCCO

    pulse contour cardiac output

  • POCT

    point-of-care testing

  • P-PCI

    primary percutaneous coronary intervention

  • PPH

    postpartum haemorrhage

  • pressure support ventilation

  • PT

    prothrombin time

  • PVC

    polyvinyl chloride

  • PvCO2

    partial pressure of venous carbon dioxide

  • PvO2

    partial pressure of venous oxygen

  • PVR

    pulmonary vascular resistance

  • RASS

    Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale

  • RCN

    Royal College of Nursing

  • REM

    rapid eye movement

  • ROM

    range of movement

  • RQ

    respiratory quotient

  • RRT

    renal replacement therapy

  • RSBI

    Rapid Shallow Breathing Index

  • RVF

    right ventricular failure

  • s



    Simplified Acute Physiology Score II/III

  • SBAR

    Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation

  • SBT

    spontaneous breathing trial

  • SCUF

    slow continuous ultrafiltration


    syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

  • SIMV

    synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation

  • SIRS

    systemic inflammatory response syndrome

  • SLE

    systemic lupus erythematosus

  • SOFA

    Sequential Organ Failure Assessment

  • SpO2

    oxygen saturation in arterial blood


    ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

  • SVR

    systemic vascular resistance

  • SVT

    supraventricular tachycardia

  • SVV

    stroke volume variation

  • SWS

    slow-wave sleep

  • TB


  • TENS

    transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

  • TIA

    transient ischaemic attack

  • TMA

    thrombotic microangiopathy

  • tissue plasminogen activator

  • TPN

    total parenteral nutrition

  • TTP

    thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

  • U&E

    urea and electrolytes

  • VAP

    ventilator-associated pneumonia

  • VC

    vital capacity

  • VF

    ventricular fibrillation

  • VO2

    oxygen consumption

  • V/Q


  • VT

    tidal volume

  • VT

    ventricular tachycardia

  • VTE

    venous thromboembolism

  • WBC

    white blood cell


    whole blood partial thromboplastin time

  • WFNS

    World Federation of Neurosurgeons Scale