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Cardiovascular support 

Cardiovascular support
Cardiovascular support

Heather Baid

, Fiona Creed

, and Jessica Hargreaves

Page of

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date: 21 September 2019

Most critically ill patients require complex cardiac monitoring while receiving critical care. This chapter reviews the most commonly used monitoring systems and devices. It describes the use of continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring, including 12-lead ECG monitoring, and has a useful section on troubleshooting ECG recordings. Blood pressure measurement and central venous pressure monitoring are then discussed. Next the various forms of cardiac output monitoring, including the pulmonary artery catheter, pulse contour analysis, lithium dilution cardiac output, and the use of Doppler cardiac output measurement are described. Information on the use, indications, and side effects of vasoactive medications is presented, and the use of invasive forms of support such as intra-aortic balloon pumps and transvenous, epicardial, and transcutaneous pacing is considered.

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