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Respiratory support 

Respiratory support
Chapter:
Respiratory support
Author(s):

Heather Baid

, Fiona Creed

, and Jessica Hargreaves

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198701071.003.0005
Page of

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date: 21 September 2019

This chapter reviews the range of therapies available to support and maintain lung function. After a summary of respiratory physiology, factors that affect the patient’s work of breathing and lung compliance are discussed, and ventilation/perfusion mismatch and respiratory failure are described. The indications, risks, and modes of delivery of oxygen therapy are outlined, and non-invasive ventilation and its indications and contraindications are discussed. There is a section on the care of patients with an endotracheal or a tracheal tube, including the process of intubation, the medications commonly used, the procedures for rapid sequence induction, extubation, and decannulation., and specific management practices with regard to safety checks, infection prevention and control, humidification, and communication with the patient. The indications for, physiological effects of and common modes of mechanical ventilation are then described. Finally, there are sections on protective lung ventilation strategies and management of hypoxia and hypercapnia, as well as weaning from mechanical ventilation.

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