Show Summary Details
Page of

The Leishmanioses 

The Leishmanioses
Chapter:
The Leishmanioses
Author(s):

Marina Gramiccia

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198570028.003.0051
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 28 September 2020

Leishmanioses are a large group of parasitic diseases range over the intertropical zones of America and Africa, and extend into temperate regions of South America, Southern Europe and Asia. The clinical aspect of the diseases is wide ranging from a simple, self-resolving cutaneous lesion to the potentially fatal visceral leishmaniosis, known as kala-azar. In numerous underdeveloped countries leishmanioses remain a major public health problem representing one of the most neglected diseases. Among 15 well-recognized Leishmania species known to infect humans, 13 have definite zoonotic nature, which include agents of visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms of the disease in both the Old and New Worlds. Mammal reservoir hosts belong to the marsupalia, edentata, carnivora, hyracoidea, and rodentia, maintaining sylvatic zoonotic foci in the deserts of Africa and Asia, the forests of South and Central America, as well as synanthropic foci in the Mediterranean basin and much of South America. Although the known vectors are all phlebotomine sandflies, these have a wide range of specific habits and habitats. The complexity of this group of infections has only recently been appreciated and is still being worked out. Currently, leishmanioses show a wider geographical distribution than previously known, with increased global incidence of human disease. Environmental, demographic and human behavioural factors contribute to the changing leishmaniosis landscape, which basically include increasing risk factors for zoonotic cutaneous leishmanioses, and new scenarios associated with the zoonotic entity of visceral leishmaniosis. In comparison with the anthroponotic entities of leishmaniosis, limited progresses were made for the control of the zoonotic ones, consisting mainly in new tools developed for the control of L. infantum in the canine reservoir.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.