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Zoonotic paramyxoviruses 

Zoonotic paramyxoviruses
Chapter:
Zoonotic paramyxoviruses
Author(s):

Paul A. Rota

and William J. Bellini

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198570028.003.0047
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date: 28 September 2020

Hendra virus (HeV), Nipah virus (NiV), and Menangle virus (MenV) are recently emergent paramyxoviruses that are responsible for zoonotic infections and represent potential threats to agriculture and humans. In particular, HeV and NiV cause fatal disease in animals and man, and outbreaks of NiV continue to occur almost annually in Southeast Asia. Molecular biologic studies have made substantial contributions to the characterization of these new paramyxoviruses by providing an accurate picture of their relative taxonomic positions, and molecular techniques were used to provide rapid diagnostic capabilities. In the outbreaks of NiV in Malaysia, Bangladesh, and India, molecular biological data quickly identified the etiologic agent present, and RT-PCR and serologic assays were used to rapidly confirm NiV infections in humans and animals. There has only been one report of human illness due to MenV and one study has detected an antibody response to a related rubulavirus, Tioman virus (TiV), in humans. It is interesting that all of these viruses share a common reservoir in large fruit bats. Because of their clear potential to cause severe disease in humans and animals, NiV and HeV have been designated as Class C Select Agents and have been the focus of intense study since their emergence.

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