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Mosquito-borne arboviruses 

Mosquito-borne arboviruses
Chapter:
Mosquito-borne arboviruses
Author(s):

E. A. Gould

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780198570028.003.0039
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date: 22 January 2020

The arboviruses are all single-stranded RNA viruses, although they belong to four different viral families. Several important human pathogens belong to the mosquito-borne arboviruses including yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and Rift Valley Fever. They cause a wide range of illnesses from unrecognised infection to severe systemic disease with hemorrhagic complications and encephalitis with a high mortality similar range of illnesses is seen in infected animals.

Arboviruses have several unique characteristics, these include; an ability to infect and be transmitted by mosquitos, ticks, midges, sand flies, bugs, fleas, blackflies and horseflies. They infect vertebrate hosts which may amplify virus for invertebrate vectors that feed on infected vertebrates. An ability to replicate in anthropods, with little pathology and in vertebrates often with significant pathology. Many arboviruses are Zoonotic.

Control methods depend on the epidemiology of particular viruses, but epidemic vector control through control of insect breeding sites and the use of insecticide spraying have been successfully used in the past. Effective vaccines are available for yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

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