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Autonomic surgical neuroanatomy 

Autonomic surgical neuroanatomy
Autonomic surgical neuroanatomy

Sanjay Purkayastha

, J. Anthony Firth

, and Ara W. Darzi

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date: 10 April 2020

The outflow nerves of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are generally considered to be III, VII, IX, X and S2–S4 (craniosacral—parasympathetic) and T1–L2 (thoracolumbar—sympathetic).

The two ANS divisions do not act in simple opposition; the ­parasympathetic is restricted to the viscera, and the distinction between sympathetic and parasympathetic is not sharp, particularly in the pelvic plexus....

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