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Diagnostics and Biomarkers 

Diagnostics and Biomarkers
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date: 17 June 2019

Many neuroimaging studies have evaluated changes in brain structure and function in patients with HIV-associated brain disorders. Most of these were conducted to assess the neuroanatomical or neurophysiological substrates underlying the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The ultimate goal of these neuroimaging studies was to improve the understanding of common cognitive deficits in HIV patients, such as deficits in sustained attention, mental flexibility, motor function, speed of information processing, short-term and working memory, executive function, and verbal fluency. In this chapter, we review and discuss early neuroimaging studies using CT and other techniques that involve ionizing radiation, such as SPECT and PET. We also review functional MRI studies, specifically perfusion MRI and BOLD-fMRI, and MRS studies, in both HAND and HIV neuroasymptomatic individuals. We also propose future directions for the application of these techniques to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of HIV-associated brain injury and for use in the monitoring of treatment.

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