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Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Nervous System Disease in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy 

Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Nervous System Disease in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy
Chapter:
Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Nervous System Disease in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy
Author(s):

Annelies Van Rie

and Anna Dow

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780195399349.003.0064
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date: 17 June 2019

In children, HIV infection is associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental delays and neuropsychiatric complications, as well as an increased risk of central nervous system (CNS) infections, neoplasms, and cerebrovascular complications. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a dramatic decrease in severe presentations of HIV infection (such as HIV encephalopathy), but milder forms of neurodevelopmental delay and behavioral problems are likely to continue occurring in HIV-infected children, even those who are clinically and immunologically stable. This chapter summarizes current knowledge about CNS disease manifestations in HIV-positive children infected by mother-to-child transmission. The chapter discusses both developed and developing countries and emphasizes knowledge relevant to the era of antiretroviral treatment.

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