Show Summary Details
Page of

Neuronal Injury, White Matter Disease, and Neurotrophic Factors 

Neuronal Injury, White Matter Disease, and Neurotrophic Factors
Chapter:
Neuronal Injury, White Matter Disease, and Neurotrophic Factors
Author(s):

T. Dianne Langford

, Ian Paul Everall

, and Eliezer Masliah

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780195399349.003.0048
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2016. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 17 June 2019

Abstract: The patterns of neurodegeneration in AIDS patients, paying special attention to neuronal injury, white matter disease, and the potential role of neurotrophic factors are reviewed. On the cellular level, there is evidence that neuronal damage in AIDS might start in synapses and dendrites and then spread to the rest of the neuron, leading to cell death by apoptosis. Anatomically, neurodegeneration affects primarily the striato-cortical, cortico-cortical, and limbic intrinsic/inhibitory circuitries. Whether these circuitries are affected simultaneously or as part of an anatomical progression is unknown. Differences in the relative levels of specific receptors across neuronal populations may influence their vulnerability to distinct HIV-related neurotoxins. The emergence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-resistant HIV strains may have contributed to more aggressive forms of HIV encephalitis (HIVE). However, since not all patients with HIVE display neurodegeneration and motor-cognitive impairment, it is possible that, in some cases, the host is capable of producing trophic factors that protect neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell populations from HIV-associated toxicity. Identification of new trophic factors, and improved understanding of neuroprotective mechanisms, may lead to new treatments for HIVE in the cART era.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.