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NeuroAIDS as an Inflammatory Disorder 

NeuroAIDS as an Inflammatory Disorder
NeuroAIDS as an Inflammatory Disorder

Denise R. Cook

, Stephanie A. Cross

, Samantha S. Soldan

, and Dennis L. Kolson

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date: 07 July 2020

The role of inflammation in the brain and the periphery as it pertains to the neuropathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors. Pro-inflammatory cytokines activate a neuroinvasive subset of monocytes in the periphery, compromise the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and promote the transmigration of infected monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammatory mediators also promote the accumulation in the brain of macrophages, which serve as a primary reservoir for HIV in the CNS and contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND via the release of neurotoxic and inflammatory cellular products. This chapter also discusses the role of chronic neuroinflammation on the pathogenesis of other CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis. The elucidation of neuroinflammatory processes underlying these conditions will lead to the identification of biomarkers for classification, diagnosis, and clinical prognosis, as well as to the development of treatment modalities for HAND and other neuroinflammatory disorders of the CNS.

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