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The CNS in Acute and Early Infection 

The CNS in Acute and Early Infection
Chapter:
The CNS in Acute and Early Infection
Author(s):

Serena S. Spudich

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780195399349.003.0040
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date: 17 June 2019

The effect of HIV on the nervous system had been thought to become significant only years after systemic HIV infection occurs. However, around the time of HIV seroconversion, some individuals develop neurological signs and symptoms, and HIV has been documented in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue early in the course of infection. The mechanisms involved in the central nervous system (CNS) response to initial infection, and the significance of early neuroinvasion for the natural history of CNS disease, establishment of a CNS reservoir of HIV, and the ultimate development of AIDS-related neurological injury are only beginning to be understood. This chapter reviews what is known about the natural history and pathogenesis of systemic acute HIV and clinical neurological syndromes associated with seroconversion. The chapter also discusses more recent investigations into the relevance of early infection for the biological and neurocognitive aspects of HIV-related CNS disease.

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