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Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus and Visna 

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus and Visna
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus and Visna

Valgerdur Andrésdóttir

, Sigurbjörg Torsteinsdóttir

, and Gudmundur Georgsson

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date: 07 July 2020

Maedi-visna virus and Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus are lentiviruses that cause epizootics in, respectively, sheep and goats. These viruses do not cause overt immunosuppression but the immune responses they engender are ineffective at eradicating the infections. Both viruses can cause encephalitis and both share important features with SIV and HIV infections, especially pertaining to the initial steps in the development of central nervous system (CNS) lesions. The main target cells for productive infection in the brain are cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage; and the mechanisms for virus entry into the CNS may be similar for all the lentiviruses. These viruses and their animal hosts are valuable models for aspects of HIV infection in humans, and are especially well suited for the study of AIDS neurology. This chapter describes these viruses and the pathogenic features they possess that are relevant to the modelling of human HIV infection.

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