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Simian Immunodeficiency Virus 

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

M. Christine Zink

, Joseph L. Mankowski

, David R. Graham

, Lucio Gama

, and Janice E. Clements

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date: 17 June 2019

An animal model using the pigtailed macaque co-infected with two SIV viruses recapitulates key clinical and pathological features of HIV infection of the peripheral and central nervous system (PNS, CNS). The pigtailed macaques in this model develop immunosuppression more rapidly than similarly co-infected rhesus macaques, and develop CNS lesions more frequently than either rhesus macaques or cynomologous monkeys when similarly coinfected. In this pigtail model, the majority of animals develop AIDS as well as CNS and PNS disease by 84 days post inoculation. Furthermore, this model recapitulates the acute, asymptomatic, and late stages of infection and disease in the CNS, making it possible to study stage-specific longitudinal viral and immunological changes and responses to therapies. This chapter discusses a range of important topics relevant to understanding SIV models of AIDS and NeuroAIDS in general, as well as this pigtail model in particular. These topics include areas related to normal immune responses, genetic susceptibilities, pathogenesis of HIV disease, and preclinical testing of neuroprotective agents.

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