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HIV-1 gp120 

HIV-1 gp120
HIV-1 gp120

Shu-ichi Okamoto

, Marcus Kaul

, Ian Paul Everall

, Eliezer Masliah

, and Stuart A. Lipton

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date: 07 July 2020

This chapter reviews the neurotoxic effects of gp120, which has been implicated in the development of neurocognitive disorders. The toxic effects of Tat, which are discussed in detail in the Chapter by Li and Nath, are also briefly discussed. The major toxic action of gp120 is thought to be indirect, acting via NMDA receptors and other pathways, including GSK3 and the production of cytokines such as TNF- , IL-1?? and IL-6. Therapeutic strategies designed to interfere with these neurotoxic pathways and prevent or reduce harm from gp120 are considered, as are other substances, such as Tat. Agents considered include NMDA receptor antagonists, antioxidants, chemokine and cytokine antagonists, neurotrophic factors, inhibitors of GSK3 and of caspase, estrogen, and p38 MAPK antagonists.

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