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Mononuclear Phagocyte Inflammation and Neurotoxicity 

Mononuclear Phagocyte Inflammation and Neurotoxicity
Chapter:
Mononuclear Phagocyte Inflammation and Neurotoxicity
Author(s):

Andrea Martinez-Skinner

, Ari S. Nowacek

, JoEllyn McMillan

, and Howard E. Gendelman

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780195399349.003.0017
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date: 27 June 2019

Effective antiretroviral therapy has reduced the incidence and severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairments. Nonetheless, disease continues and remains a serious morbidity associated with advanced viral infection and immune suppression. The conductors for disease are the mononuclear phagocytes (MP; blood borne macrophages and microglia). A plethora of viral and cellular products secreted as a consequence of immune activation and viral infection incites an inflammatory cascade that elicits neurotoxicity, blood brain barrier breakdown, and viral dissemination. The fundamental parts of the disease process can be readily understood by studies of MP function in health and its particular unique functional roles in disease. Importantly, central nervous system is not an immunologically protected organ for virus. Understanding the molecular and biochemical bases of MP immunity in the setting of diseases of the nervous system will likely provide insights for neuroAIDS, a plethora of neurodegenerative diseases, and developing therapeutic strategies to prevent neural insults.

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