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Endothelial Cell Biology and HIV-1 Infection 

Endothelial Cell Biology and HIV-1 Infection
Chapter:
Endothelial Cell Biology and HIV-1 Infection
Author(s):

Michal Toborek

, Ibolya E. András

, Cetewayo S. Rashid

, Yu Zhong

, and Shinsuke Nakagawa

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780195399349.003.0013
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date: 23 May 2019

An understanding of endothelial cell function both systemically and in the central nervous system is relevant to many aspects of HIV-1 associated disease. Endothelial cells produce a variety of biologically active factors (e.g., NO, prostacyclin, chemokines) that control vascular permeability, vessel tone, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammatory responses. These factors can be generated by other vascular cells, as well as non-vascular cells. Alterations of normal endothelial cell biology have critical significance in the development of vascular and neurovascular pathology during HIV-1 infection. For example, such alterations can contribute to disruption of the BBB, to HIV-1 entry into the brain, to the development of vasculopathies, and to atherosclerosis. The underlying mechanisms appear to be related to induction of oxidative stress and alterations of redox-related signaling. Vascular toxicity may be induced by HIV-1 itself or it can be mediated by a variety of HIV-1-specific proteins, as well as by antiretroviral drugs. \

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