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James B. Reinecke

, Hui Peng

, Yunlong Huang

, Qiang Chen

, and Jialin C. Zheng

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date: 14 July 2020

Neurogenesis is a highly regulated process responsible for the generation of new neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes from neural stem cells. Previously, neurogenesis was thought to be a pre-natal phenomenon, halting shortly after birth. Intense investigation over the past decade and a half has reversed that theory. It is now widely accepted that neurogenesis persists into adulthood and may play a crucial role in complicated behaviors such as learning and memory. Consequently, accumulating evidence suggests that impaired neurogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis of several brain disorders. The purpose of this chapter is three-fold. First, we will describe the process of developmental and adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the relationship between brain disorders and neurogenesis will be extensively reviewed, with emphasis on how brain inflammation may influence the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders. Lastly, we will explore how new advances in stem cell biology may lead to exciting new therapies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

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