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Adaptive Immunity 

Adaptive Immunity
Adaptive Immunity

Jessica A. L. Hutter-Saunders

, Larisa Y. Poluektova

, Subhash Dhawan

, and Howard E. Gendelman

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date: 07 July 2020

Innate and adaptive immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection parallel those seen against misfolded, aggregated and nitrated proteins during neurodegenerative diseases. These include, but are not limited to, amyloid beta and alpha synuclein for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, respectively. The altered protein structures engage microglial activities and lead to robust and specific adaptive immune responses that affect the tempo and progression of neurodegenerative processes. Similar responses are also operative in neuroAIDS where the target is HIV-1. This chapter serves to discuss then dissect how microbes and aberrant proteins similarly serve as immune triggers for nervous system diseases. To this end, we first introduce the reader to the workings of the adaptive immune system, discuss the host's responses to infection and develop how it affects neurologic diseases. Finally, we explore how such adaptive immune responses can lead to progressive neurodegeneration and ultimately be harnessed for neural repair.

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