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Viral and Host Genetic Factors 

Viral and Host Genetic Factors
Viral and Host Genetic Factors

Jennifer A. McCombe

, Shaona Acharjee

, M. John Gill

, and Christopher Power

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date: 14 July 2020

HIV-1 neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are extremely widespread, yet not all HIV-positive individuals develop HAND and there are significant differences in clinical presentation and severity among those who do. In this chapter, we discuss genetic factors in both the host and the virus that can play a role in, and can produce variations in the extent of, HIV neuropathogenesis. The presentation focuses on, and distinguishes among, host determinants, virus-encoded determinants, and clade-related determinants of neuropathogeneis. The neuropathogenic stages of neuroinvasion, neurotropism, and neurovirulence provide a framework for much of the discussion. In many cases, pathogenic factors are mediated through the interaction of toxic viral proteins and host inflammatory molecules. Non-genetic host factors, which can contribute to an individual's neurosusceptibility (such factors include age, immune status, medication compliance, hepatitis C status, illicit drug use, and nutritional status) are not discussed in this chapter.

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