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Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” denote figures and tables, respectively.

Accidents
chronic kidney disease and, [link][link]
narcolepsy and, [link][link]
sleep deprivation-related, [link]
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), [link]
ACE inhibitors
effects on sleep, [link]t
and nightmares, [link], [link]t
and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Acetaminophen
for migraine, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Actigraphy
for chronic renal disease, [link]
insomnia and, [link]
Actus reus (guilty act), [link]
Acupuncture, for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
Acute, Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III study, [link]
Acute cardiac events, obstructive sleep apnea and, [link][link]
Adaptation, [link]
Adaptive pressure support servo-ventilation (APSSV), [link]
Adaptive servo ventilation (ASV), [link]
Adjuvant hormone therapy, for cancer, [link][link]
Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), [link]
Advanced Life Support, [link]
Age-related changes, in sleep, [link][link]
Agrypnia excitata, [link]
Airflow monitoring, [link][link]
intranasal pressure transducers and, [link]
nasal thermocouple and, [link][link]
pneumotachometers and, [link]
respiratory inductance plethysmography and, [link]
Air swallowing, [link]
Air trapping, [link]
Akathisia, [link]
Alcohol
effects on sleep, [link]
Alpha-2-agonists
effects on sleep, [link]t
and nightmares, [link]
Alpha-2 antagonists, for hot flashes, [link]
Alpha-2 delta anticonvulsants, and restless legs syndrome, [link]
Alveolar hypoventilation syndromes, nocturnal hypoxemia and, [link]
Alzheimer’s disease, insomnia and, [link]
Amantadine, nightmares and, [link]t
Ambulatory surgery, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link][link]
American Academy of Neurology, [link]
American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM), [link], [link], [link]
Respiratory Task Force, [link]
American Board of Registered Polysomnographic Technologists (BRPT), [link]
American Cancer Society, [link]
American College of Cardiology, [link]
American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), [link], [link]
American Heart Association, [link]
American Medical Association (AMA)
Report of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (2004), [link]
American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), [link], [link], [link]
American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), [link]
Amiodarone
effects on sleep, [link]t
Amitriptyline
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
for sleep disturbances, [link]
Amphetamines
effects on sleep, [link][link]
and nightmares, [link]
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), [link], [link], [link], [link], [link][link]
bi-level positive airway pressure therapy for, [link]
and diaphragmatic dysfunction, [link]
El Escorial diagnostic criteria for, [link], [link]t
hypoxemia in, [link][link]
incidence of, [link]
noninvasive ventilation for, [link][link]
pulmonary function test abnormalities, [link]
respiratory failure in, [link]
reduction in vital capacity, [link]
role of spirometry in, [link]
Analgesics
effects on sleep, [link]t
Androgen replacement therapy, for sleep-related breathing disorders, [link]
Anesthesia, [link][link]
care, sedation with monitored, [link]
inhalated, [link]
multimodal approach for, [link][link]
perioperative management of, [link][link], [link]t
postoperative effects of, [link]
regional, [link]
reversal of, [link][link]
and serious respiratory depression, [link][link]
Ankylosing spondylitis, [link]t, [link][link]
Anterograde amnesia, [link]
Antiarrhythmics, nightmares and, [link]t
Anticataplectics, nightmares and, [link]t
Anticholinergics
and nightmares, [link]
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Anticonvulsants
for hot flashes, [link]
for insomnia, [link]
and post-traumatic stress disorder, [link]
Antidepressants
effects on sleep, [link], [link][link], [link]t, [link]
for hot flashes, [link]
for insomnia, [link], [link], [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
and post-traumatic stress disorder, [link]
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
for sleep disturbances, [link]
Antiemetics
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)
effect on sleep, [link][link]
Antiepileptics
effects on sleep, [link], [link]t
and nightmares, [link]
for restless legs syndrome, [link]
Antihistamines
and arousal disorders, [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
for sleep disturbances, [link]
Antihypertensives
effects on sleep, [link]t
and nightmares, [link]t
Antihypotensives
effects on sleep, [link]t
Antimalarial agents, nightmares and, [link]
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, [link]
Antipsychotics
effects on sleep, [link][link], [link]t, [link]
for insomnia, [link], [link], [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
and post-traumatic stress disorder, [link]
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
and schizophrenia, [link]
for sleepwalking, [link]
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), [link]
Anti-TNF therapy, for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link][link]
Anxiety, [link]
and arousal disorders, [link]
and cancer, [link]
Anxiety disorders, [link]
Apnea–hypopnea index (AHI), [link][link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link][link]
Apomorphine, for restless legs syndrome, [link]
Apparent life-threatening episodes (ALTE)
in children, [link][link]
defined, [link]
epidemiology of, [link]
etiology of, [link][link], [link]t
evaluation of, [link][link]
management of, [link]
prognosis of, [link]
Appropriate skills training, [link]
Armodafinil
for circadian rhythm sleep disorders, [link]
for narcolepsy, [link]
for sleep deprivation, [link]
Arousal, confusional, [link], [link]
Arousal disorders, [link][link], [link]
anxiety and, [link]
clinical features of, [link]
diagnosis of, [link][link]
differential diagnosis, [link]
pathogenesis of, [link][link]
sleep-disordered breathing and, [link][link]
sleep-related eating disorder, [link][link]
sleep sex, [link]
treatment of, [link]
Arrhythmias
bradyarrhythmias, [link][link]
obstructive sleep apnea and, [link][link]
tachyarrhythmias, [link][link]
ASA Checklist, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link], [link]t
Aspirin, for myocardial infarction, [link], [link]f
Asthma, [link][link]
nocturnal, [link]
nocturnal bronchospasm due to, [link]
Atenolol, nightmares and, [link]t
Atrial fibrillation
nocturnal, [link]
during sleep and obstructive sleep apnea, [link], [link]
vagotonic, [link]
Atrial overdrive pacing (AOP)
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), [link]
Augmentation of restless legs syndrome. See also [link]
causes of, [link]
diagnosis and assessment of, [link][link], [link]t
management of, [link][link]
presentation of, [link][link]
Autonomic dysfunction, [link]
Autonomic hyperactivity, [link]
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE), [link]
Aviation, sleep deprivation effects on, [link][link]
Barbiturates
effects on sleep, [link]t
and nightmares, [link]
and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
for seizure disorder, [link]
Bariatric surgery
obstructive sleep apnea and, [link]
perioperative interventions to improve oxygenation, [link][link]
preoperative assessment, [link]
Barotrauma, [link]
Basic Life Support, [link], [link]
Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), [link]. See also [link]
Behavioral intervention, for cancer-related insomnia, [link]
Behavioral measures
impact on sleep deprivation, [link][link]
Benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes. See [link]
Benign rolandic epilepsy, [link], [link], [link]. See also [link]
Benign sleep myoclonus of infancy (BSMI), [link]
Benzodiazepine
for chronic kidney disease, [link]
effects on sleep, [link], [link], [link]t, [link][link]
for movement disorders, [link]
and nightmares, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
for restless legs syndrome, [link]
for seizure disorder, [link], [link]
for sleep disturbances, [link]
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link], [link]
Benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BzRAs)
for cancer-related insomnia, [link]
effects on sleep, [link]
for insomnia, [link], [link], [link], [link]
Berlin Questionnaire, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link], [link]t
Beta-antagonists
effects on sleep, [link]t
Beta-Blocker Heart Attack Trial (BHAT), [link]
Beta-blockers
effect on morning incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, [link]
for myocardial infarction, [link], [link]f
and nightmares, [link]
for sleep disturbances, [link]
Bethanidine, nightmares and, [link]t
Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP), [link]. See also [link]
for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, [link]
for neuromuscular disorders, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
pressure relief CPAP and, [link]
Biofeedback
for cancer-related insomnia, [link]
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
Biperiden and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Bipolar disorder, [link]
Bisoprolol
and nightmares, [link]t
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Body composition and chronic kidney disease, [link]
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), [link][link]
Bradyarrhythmias, obstructive sleep apnea and, [link][link]
Bradycardia
during airway obstruction, [link]
during seizure, [link]
Brain iron metabolism, [link]
Bromocriptine, for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Bronchodilators, [link]
for asthma, [link]
for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, [link]
for sleep disturbances, [link]
Brugada syndrome, [link]
Buprenorphine
effects on sleep, [link]
Bupropion
effects on sleep, [link], [link]
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
for smoking cessation, [link]
Caffeine
for circadian rhythm sleep disorders, [link][link]
effects on sleep, [link]
for hypnic headache, [link]
and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
for sleep deprivation, [link]
Calcium antagonists
effects on sleep, [link]t
for myocardial infarction, [link]f
Calcium channel blockers
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
Cancer, sleep disorders in, [link][link]
description of, [link][link]
effect of changes in prevalence of, [link]
etiology of, [link]
future directions, [link]
prevalence of, [link][link]
risk factors for, [link][link], [link]f
treatment for, [link][link]
types of, [link], [link]t
Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS II), [link]
Cancer-related fatigue, [link][link]. See also [link]
Cannabis
effects on sleep, [link]
Carbamazepine
effects on sleep, [link], [link]t
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
for seizure disorder, [link]
Carbidopa, for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Carbon dioxide monitoring, [link][link]
Cardiac arrhythmias, [link]
Cardiac surgery, obstructive sleep apnea and, [link][link]
Cardiologic emergencies, in sleep, [link][link]. See also [link]; [link]; [link]
ECG changes during sleep, [link][link]
death during sleep, [link][link], [link]f
normal sleep, hemodynamic effects of, [link]
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), [link]
Cardiovascular control, during normal sleep, [link]
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
obstructive sleep apnea and, [link][link]
shift work and, [link]
Cardiovascular effects, caused by sleep deprivation, [link]
Cardiovascular stress, [link]
Carisoprodol, for nocturnal cramps, [link]
Cataplexy
narcolepsy with, [link], [link]
narcolepsy without, [link], [link]
pathophysiology of, [link][link]
treatment of, [link]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, [link]
Central nervous system (CNS) depressants, for sleep-related breathing disorders, [link][link]
Central pattern generators (CPGs), [link], [link]
Central sleep apnea (CSA), [link][link], [link]. See also [link]
anesthesia for, [link]
Cheyne-Stokes breathing and, [link][link], [link]
crescendo–decrescendo ventilation separated by, [link]
in critically ill patients, [link][link]
hypercapnic, [link]
idiopathic, [link]
induction or worsening of, [link][link]
non-hypercapnic, [link]
opioids and, [link]
VNS-induced, [link]
Cerebrovascular insufficiency in sleep, [link], [link][link]
evaluation and management of, [link][link]
hypoxemic encephalopathy, emergency rescue breathing for, [link][link], [link]f
hypoxemic encephalopathy and death, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
transient ischemic attack, [link][link]
viral encephalitis, [link], [link][link]f
Cervical pillows, for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, [link]
Chemotherapy, [link]
Chest wall disorders
sleep-related hypoventilation/hypoxemia due to, [link][link]
Cheyne-Stokes breathing (CSB), [link], [link]
anesthesia for, [link]
central sleep apnea and, [link], [link], [link][link]
Child Abuse and Treatment Act (CAPTA), [link]
Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, [link]
Child maltreatment, [link][link]
clinical features[link][link]
defined, [link]
epidemiology of, [link][link]
management of, [link]
Children, sleep emergencies in, [link][link]
apparent life-threatening episodes, [link][link], [link]t
child maltreatment, [link][link]
major depressive disorder, [link][link]
severe obstructive sleep apnea, [link][link], [link]t
status cataplecticus, [link][link]
sudden infant death syndrome, [link][link], [link]f
Chloral hydrate, for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
Chlorpheniramine
and nightmares, [link]t
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
Chronic kidney disease, sleep disorders in, [link][link]
effect of, [link][link]
etiology of, [link][link]
evaluation of, [link][link]
excessive daytime sleepiness, [link]
insomnia, [link]
management of, [link][link]
prevalence of, [link]
restless legs syndrome, [link][link]
sleep apnea, [link]
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), [link], [link]f, [link][link]
insomnia and, [link]
nocturnal hypoxemia and, [link], [link]
Churg-Strauss disease, [link]
Cigarette smoking and sleep disturbance, [link]. See also [link]
Cimetidine
effects on sleep, [link]t
Circadian rhythm
misalignment, addressing, [link][link]
suprachiasmatic nucleus and, [link], [link][link]
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD), [link], [link][link]
free-running type, [link], [link]
irregular sleep/wake type, [link][link], [link]f
light–dark cycle, [link]
due to medical errors, [link]
misalignment on performance and safety, impact of, [link][link]
in older adults, [link][link]
shift work sleep disorder, [link][link], [link][link], [link]f, [link]
wake-promoting approaches for, [link][link]
Circadian timing system
function and sleep–wake regulation, [link][link], [link]f
general organization of, [link][link], [link]f
regulation of human performance, [link][link]
Circadian variation
in myocardial ischemia/infarction, [link][link], [link][link]f, [link]t
in ventricular arrhythmias, [link][link], [link]t
Citrix GoToMeeting, [link]
Claustrophobia, [link]
Clomimipramine, for status cataplecticus, [link]
Clonazepam
effects on sleep, [link], [link]
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
for isolated sleep paralysis, [link], [link]
for movement disorders, [link]
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link], [link][link], [link], [link]
for rhythmic movement disorder, [link]
and restless legs syndrome, [link]
for sleep-related faciomandibular myoclonus, [link]
Clonidine
for isolated sleep paralysis, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
Clozapine
effects on sleep, [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
Cluster headache, [link]. See also [link]; [link]
management of, [link]
Cocaine
effects on sleep, [link][link]
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT)
for cancer-related insomnia, [link], [link]
for chronic kidney disease, [link]
for insomnia, [link], [link], [link]
Cognitive–behavior training, for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
Cognitive dysfunction and mood disorders, [link]
Cognitive impairment, [link][link]
Commercial vehicle drivers, sleep deprivation effects on, [link]
Comorbid disorders, [link]
Complex reaction time test, [link]
Complex sleep apnea, [link], [link]. See also [link]
Comprehensive neuropsychological testing, for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Compulsive/impulsive behavior, [link][link], [link]
Computerized axial tomography (CAT)
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Confusional arousals. See also [link]
clinical features of, [link]
violent behaviors and, [link]
Congestive heart failure
insomnia and, [link]
nocturnal hypoxemia and, [link], [link]
with paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, [link]
Consciousness, neuroscience of, [link][link]
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
for chronic kidney disease, [link]
Continuous passive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, [link], [link][link]. See also [link]
effect on laryngeal patency, [link]
obstructive sleep apnea and, [link][link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link]
perioperative, [link][link], [link]f, [link][link]
pressure relief and, [link]
sleep-disordered breathing and, [link]
somnambulism and, [link]
Coronary artery calcification
inflammatory cascade in, [link]f
and sleep deprivation, [link]
Coronary artery disease, [link]
Corticosteroids
effects on sleep, [link]t
for sleep disturbances, [link]
Cortisol, sleep deprivation effects on, [link]
Counseling, for chronic kidney disease, [link]
C-reactive protein (CRP), [link][link]
Crescendo–decrescendo ventilation, [link]
Cricoarytenoid/laryngeal disease, [link]
Critical closing pressure, [link]
CSF hypocretin testing, [link]
Cutaneous injury and allergic reactions, [link]
Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP)
EEG waves and, [link]
Cyclobenzaprine, for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
Cystic fibrosis, exacerbation of, [link]
Cytokine levels and rheumatic diseases, [link][link]
Decongestants, for sleep disturbances, [link]
Dementia with Lewy body disease
REM sleep behavior disorder and, [link]
Demographic characteristics, of chronic kidney disease, [link][link]
Depression
and cancer, [link]
and chronic kidney disease, [link], [link]
and insomnia, [link]
Desflurane, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Dexmedetomidine
effects on sleep, [link]t
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Dextroamphetamine, for sleep deprivation, [link][link]
D-Fenfluramine, for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Diaphragm pacing stimulation, for spinal cord injury, [link][link]
Diaphragm paralysis, nocturnal hypoxemia and, [link]
Digoxin, nightmares and, [link]t
Diltiazem
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
Diphenhydramine
for insomnia, [link], [link]
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
Diuretics, for sleep disturbances, [link]
Divalproex sodium, for cluster headache, [link]
Donepezil, for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Dopamine
effects on sleep, [link]t
Dopamine agonists
for chronic kidney disease, [link]
and nightmares, [link], [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link], [link][link], [link][link]
for sleep disturbances, [link]
Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, [link], [link]
Dorsal raphe nuclei, [link]
Dorsal respiratory group (DRG), [link], [link]f
Doxepin
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
for sleep disturbances, [link]
Doxylamine, for insomnia, [link]
Dreams, abnormal. See also [link]
background, [link]
medications associated with, [link], [link]t
treatment for, [link][link]
Driving
narcolepsy and, [link][link]
sleep deprivation and, [link]
Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy (DMD), [link], [link], [link][link]. See also [link]
anesthesia, adverse effects of, [link]
associated with sleep-related hypoventilation, [link][link]
cardiac involvement in, [link]
diagnostic characteristics of, [link]
incidence of, [link]
noninvasive ventilation for, [link]
sedation, adverse effects of, [link]
Duloxetine
effects on sleep, [link]
Dyspnea, [link]
Dysthymic disorder, [link]
Economic consequences, of sleep deprivation, [link]
Electrical injury, [link][link]
Electrocardiography (ECG)
changes during sleep, [link][link]
Electroencephalography (EEG)
for nocturnal paroxysmal dystonias, [link], [link]
for seizure disorder, [link][link], [link][link]f, [link], [link]f, [link]f
for sleep bruxism, [link], [link]f
for sleep deprivation, [link][link]
Emergent parasomnias, [link][link]. See also [link]
Enalapril, nightmares and, [link]t
Endocrine, sleep deprivation effects on, [link][link]
Endocrine Society, [link]
Entanglement, [link]
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), [link][link]
Epiglottis, [link]
Epilepsy, [link][link], [link], [link]
benign rolandic, [link], [link]
diagnosis of, [link][link]
electrical status epilepticus of sleep, [link]f, [link]f
frontal lobe, [link], [link]
nocturnal frontal lobe, [link][link], [link]f
sudden unexpected death in, [link]
Epinephrine
effects on sleep, [link]t
Epworth and Stanford Sleepiness Scales, [link], [link], [link], [link]
Escitalopram oxalate, nightmares and, [link]t
Estazolam, for sleepwalking, [link]
Eszopiclone
for insomnia, [link], [link]
for sleepwalking, [link], [link]
Ethanol
and nightmares, [link]
and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Excessive daytime sleepiness. See also [link]
chronic renal disease and, [link]
hypersomnia and, [link], [link]
and myotonic dystrophy, [link][link]
narcolepsy and, [link], [link], [link], [link], [link]
neuromuscular disorders and, [link]
in older adults, [link]
in RLS patients, [link][link]
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), [link]
Exercise
and chronic kidney disease, [link], [link][link], [link]
and systemic lupus erythematosus, [link]
Expert testimony, guidelines for, [link][link]
Expert witness, qualification of, [link]
Expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP), [link]. See also [link]
Exploding head syndrome (EHS), [link][link]
Extrapyramidal disease
REM sleep behavior disorder and, [link][link]
Exxon Valdez disaster, [link], [link]
Falls, risk for, [link]
Fatigue
cancer-related, [link][link]
and chronic kidney disease, [link]
and insomnia, [link]
post-dialysis, [link]
sleep and, [link], [link]
Fatigue Severity Scale, [link]
Fenfluramine, nightmares and, [link]t
Fentanyl
for cancer, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Fexofenadine
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
Fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]t, [link][link]
sleep disorders in, [link][link]
sleep disturbances in, [link]
symptoms of, [link][link]
treatment for, [link][link]
Fixed action pattern (FAP), [link], [link]
Fleroxacin, nightmares and, [link]t
Flunitrazepam
for insomnia, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Fluoroquinolones, nightmares and, [link]
Fluoxetine
for narcolepsy, [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
for status cataplecticus, [link]
Flurazepam, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Food and Drug Administration, U.S. (FDA), [link], [link], [link], [link], [link]
Forensic sleep medicine specialist, [link][link]
Fosphenytoin, for seizure disorder, [link]
Free-running type, [link]
Frontal lobe epilepsy, [link], [link]. See also [link]
Functional Independence Measure (FIM), [link]
GABA-active hypnotics and restless legs syndrome, [link]
GABA hydroxybutyrate, nightmares and, [link]t
Gabapentin
for cancer-related insomnia, [link]
effects on sleep, [link], [link]t
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link][link]
for hot flashes, [link]
for nocturnal cramps, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
for restless legs syndrome, [link], [link]
for seizure disorder, [link]
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). See [link]
Gastroesophageal reflux, [link]
and pulmonary aspiration, [link]
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
prolongation of acid–mucosal contact and, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
during sleep, [link][link]
Gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders, [link]
Gastrointestinal effects, caused by sleep deprivation, [link][link]
Generalized anxiety disorder, [link]. See also [link]
Generalized seizure, [link]. See also [link]
effect of sleep on, [link]
Genetics of sleep disorders
human leukocyte antigen association and, [link]
GHB, for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
Ghrelin, [link][link]
Guanethidine, nightmares and, [link]t
Gusperimus, nightmares and, [link]t
H2 antagonists
effects on sleep, [link]t
Hallucination
auditory, [link]
gustatory, [link]
hypnagogic, [link]
hypnopompic, [link]
narcolepsy and, [link], [link], [link]
olfactory, [link]
tactile, [link]
Haloperidol
effects on sleep, [link]t
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
Headache, [link][link], [link]. See also [link]
affected by sleep, [link][link], [link]t
cluster, [link]
differential diagnosis of, [link]
epidemiology of, [link][link]
exploding head syndrome, [link][link]
hypnic, [link], [link][link]
management of, [link][link]
obstructive sleep apnea-related, [link], [link], [link][link]
REM locked, [link]
secondary, [link]
sleep affected by, [link]
sleep disruption and, [link]
SUNCT syndrome, [link], [link]
Health status, chronic kidney disease and, [link]
Hemodialysis (HD)
for chronic kidney disease, [link], [link], [link]
Hemodynamic effects, of normal sleep, [link]. See also [link]
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), [link]t, [link]
High-altitude periodic breathing, [link], [link]
Hirschsprung’s disease, [link]
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
for cancer, [link]
for hot flashes, [link][link]
Horner’s syndrome, [link]
Hot flashes
and cancer, [link][link]
treatment for, [link][link]
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA)
narcolepsy and, [link]
Hydrotherapy, for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
Hypercapnia, [link]
insomnia and, [link]
Hypercapnic sleep apnea, [link]. See also [link]
Hypercapnic ventilatory response, [link], [link]
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, [link]. See also [link]
Hypersomnia, [link][link]
distinguished from narcolepsy, [link]
evaluation of, [link]
management of, [link]
types of, [link]
Hypersomnolence, treatment of, [link]
Hypertension, [link][link]
Hypnagogic or hypnic jerks. See [link]
Hypnic headache, [link], [link][link]. See also [link]; [link]
management of, [link]
Hypnosis
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Hypnotics, [link]
for insomnia, [link]
for shift work-associated insomnia, [link]
Hypocretin-1, [link]
Hypocretin-2, [link]
Hypocretin gene transfer, in mice models of narcolepsy, [link][link], [link]t, [link]f
future goals, [link]
site of, [link][link]
Hypocretins, [link]
linking with narcolepsy, [link]
Hypoglycemia, [link][link]
Hypopnea, [link]
crescendo–decrescendo ventilation separated by, [link]
defined, [link]
Hypotension, [link][link], [link]
Hypoventilation
for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, [link]
Hypoxemia, insomnia and, [link]
Hypoxemia, nocturnal
differential diagnosis of, [link][link]
in obstructive sleep apnea, [link][link]
Hypoxemic encephalopathy
and death, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
emergency rescue breathing for, [link][link], [link]f
life-threatening, [link][link]
Hypoxia, [link]
Hypoxic ventilatory response, [link], [link]
Iatrogenic nightmares. See also [link]
background, [link]
medications associated with, [link], [link]t
treatment for, [link][link]
Ibuprofen, for migraine, [link]
Idiopathic central sleep apnea, [link]. See also [link]; [link]
Imipramine
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
for status cataplecticus, [link]
Immediate postoperative monitoring, [link]
Immune function, [link]
sleep deprivation effects on, [link]
Immunosuppressants, nightmares and, [link]t
Implantable cardioverter–defibrillators (ICDs), [link]
Incontinence, risk for, [link]
Indomethacin
for hypnic headache, [link]
for paroxysmal hemicrania, [link]
Inhaled anesthetic agents, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Insomnia, [link][link]
acute onset of, [link]
as “Adjustment Insomnia”, [link]
Alzheimer’s disease and, [link]
cancer-related, [link], [link]
caused by neuronal loss in anterior thalamic nuclei, [link]
caused by neuronal loss in dorsomedial thalamic nuclei, [link]
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, [link]
chronic renal disease and, [link]
classification of, [link][link]
congestive heart failure and, [link]
daytime impairment, [link], [link]
depression and, [link]
DSM IV criteria for, [link]
evaluation of, [link][link]
hypercapnia and, [link]
hypoxemia and, [link]
impaired performance in, [link]
management of, [link][link]
obstructive sleep apnea and, [link][link]
in older adults, [link][link], [link]
paradoxical, [link]
Parkinson’s disease and, [link]
prevalence of, [link]
risk factors for, [link]
shift work-associated insomnia, hypnotics for, [link]
seizure disorder and, [link]
sleep deprivation in, [link]
stroke and, [link]
thyroid replacement medication and, [link]
thyrotoxicosis and, [link]
treatment for, [link], [link], [link]
withdrawal-induced, [link]
Insomnia Severity Index, [link]
Inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP), [link]. See also [link]
Institute of Medicine, [link]
Institutionalized elderly patients, sleep in, [link]
Insulin, sleep deprivation effects on, [link]
Insulin resistance, [link][link]
Integumentary effects, caused by sleep deprivation, [link]
Intensive care unit (ICU), [link][link]
characteristics of sleep in, [link]
medications on sleep, effect of, [link][link], [link][link]t
methods of evaluation, [link]
outcomes and sleep deprivation, relationship between, [link][link]
sleep and sedation, [link]
sleep disorders and critical illness, [link][link]
sleep disruption, causes of, [link][link], [link]t
sleep loss, consequences of, [link][link]
sleep promotion in, [link][link]
Intercostal muscles, [link]
Interleukin-1 (IL-1), [link], [link][link]
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), [link]
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), [link], [link][link]
International Classification of Sleep Disorders, [link], [link], [link]
International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Diagnostic and Coding Manual, Second Edition (ICSD-2), [link]
International Classification of Sleep Disorders-2, [link]
International Headache Society (HIS-2), [link]
International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG), [link], [link]
Interstitial lung diseases, [link][link]
Interstitial pneumonitis. See also [link]
desquamative, [link]
usual, [link]
Intra-arterial blood pressure, in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, [link]f
Intracranial air, [link]
Intracranial pressure, [link]
Intranasal pressure transducers, [link]
Intravenous Streptokinase in Acute Myocardial Infarction Study (ISAM), [link]
Iron deficiency
and chronic kidney disease, [link]
and restless legs syndrome, [link]
Iron depletion, [link][link]
Irritable bowel syndrome, [link]
Ischemic cardiac event, [link]
Isoflurane, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP), [link][link]. See also [link]
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, [link]
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), [link]t. See also [link]
sleep disorders in, [link]
sleep disturbances in, [link]
Ketamine
effects on sleep, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Labetalol, nightmares and, [link]t
Lacosamide, for seizure disorder, [link]
Lamotrigine
effects on sleep, [link]
for seizure disorder, [link]
Learning, sleep deprivation effects on, [link]
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, [link], [link][link]
Lentivirus, [link]t, [link]
Leptin, [link]
Levetiracetam
for hot flashes, [link]
for seizure disorder, [link], [link]
Levodopa
nightmares and, [link]t
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
for restless legs syndrome, [link], [link]
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Lewy body disease
dementia with, and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Lifestyle changes and restless legs syndrome, [link]
Light exposure, circadian rhythm sleep disorder and, [link], [link]f
Light therapy, for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
Lipophilic beta-blockers, for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Lisuride, for restless legs syndrome, [link]
Lithium
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
for sleepwalking, [link]
Lithium bridging
for cluster headache, [link]
for hypnic headache, [link]
Locomotor centers (LMCs), [link][link]
Locus ceruleus, [link]
Lofexidine
effects on sleep, [link]
Long QT syndrome (LQTS), [link][link]
nocturnal bradycardia and, [link]
Loratadine
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
Lorazepam, for seizure disorder, [link]
Losartan, nightmares and, [link]t
Lou Gehrig’s disease. See [link]
Lower airway obstruction
sleep-related hypoventilation/hypoxemia due to, [link][link]
Lower esophageal sphincter (LES), [link], [link]
MADIT II trial, [link]
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Maintenance of Wakefulness Test, [link]
Major depressive disorder, in children
clinical features, [link][link]
management of, [link]
Massage therapy, for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
Max Planck Criteria, for diagnosing RLS augmentation, [link]t
Medical illness, sleep problems and, [link]
Medical residents, sleep deprivation effects on, [link][link]
Medical status changes and restless legs syndrome, [link]
Medicare
2-hour rule, [link]
Medication changes and restless legs syndrome, [link][link]
Medicolegal issues, sleep deprivation-related, [link][link]
Medullary respiratory center (MRC), [link]
components and connectivities of, [link]f
Melatonin
circadian rhythm and, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f, [link]
effects on sleep, [link]
for insomnia, [link]
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link], [link], [link]
Mens rea (guilty mind), [link], [link]
Mental disorders
induced or exacerbated by sleep disturbance, [link][link]
Meprobamate, REM sleep behavior disorder and, [link]
Metabolic syndrome, shift work and, [link]
Methadone
effects on sleep, [link]
Methamphetamine
effects on sleep, [link]
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
effects on sleep, [link]
Methylphenidate
effects on sleep, [link][link]
for sleep deprivation, [link]
for status cataplecticus, [link]
Metoclopramide
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
Mice models of narcolepsy, hypocretin gene transfer in, [link][link], [link]t, [link]f
Midazolam, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Migraine. See also [link]
management of, [link]
with aura, [link][link]
without aura, [link][link]
Minor tranquilizers, arousal disorders and, [link]
Mirtazapine
effects on sleep, [link]
for hot flashes, [link]
and restless legs syndrome, [link]
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
for sleep disturbances, [link]
Modafinil
for circadian rhythm sleep disorders, [link]
for excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy, [link], [link]
for myotonic dystrophy, [link]
for narcolepsy, [link], [link]
for sleep deprivation, [link]
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
effects on sleep, [link]
and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link], [link], [link]
Mood disorders, [link]
cognitive dysfunction and, [link]
Mood stability, sleep deprivation effects on, [link]
Morbidity, obstructive sleep apnea and, [link]
Morphine
for cancer, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
postoperative effects of, [link]
Mortality
hazard ratios, [link], [link]f
risk and sleep deprivation, [link]
Motor neuron disease, [link][link]
Movement disorders in sleep, [link][link]
benign sleep myoclonus of infancy, [link]
nocturnal cramps, [link][link]
nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, [link][link], [link]f
propriospinal myoclonus at wake–sleep transition, [link], [link][link], [link]f
rhythmic movement disorder, [link][link], [link]f
sleep bruxism, [link][link], [link]f
sleep paralysis, [link][link]
sleep starts, [link][link]
sleep-related eating disorder, [link][link]
Multilevel obstruction, obstructive sleep apnea and, [link]t
Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), [link], [link], [link], [link], [link]
Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
nocturnal stridor in, [link][link]
treatment for, [link][link]
Munchausen syndrome, [link]
Muscle atonia, rapid eye movement sleep and, [link], [link][link], [link]
Muscular Disability Rating Scale (MDRS), [link]
Muscular dystrophy, [link][link]
Becker, [link]
Duchenne’s, [link], [link][link]
Myasthenia gravis, [link], [link]
Myocardial infarction (MI)
circadian variation in, [link], [link]t
obstructive sleep apnea and, [link]
and sleep termination, [link][link], [link][link]f
sudden death and, [link], [link]f
Myocardial ischemia, [link]
obstructive sleep apnea and, [link][link], [link]f
Myotonic dystrophy, [link], [link], [link][link]
cardiac abnormalities and, [link][link]
with excessive daytime sleepiness, [link][link]
hypercapnia, prevalence of, [link]
perioperative complications and, [link]
treatment for, [link]
type[link], [link]
type[link], [link]
Naproxen
for migraine, [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
Naps, [link], [link]
prophylactic, [link][link]
recuperative, [link][link]
Narcolepsy, [link][link]
accidents and, [link][link]
animal model versus human, [link][link]
common features of, [link][link]
confusional arousals and violent behaviors, [link]
CSF hypocretin testing and, [link]
distinguished from hypersomnia, [link]
driving and, [link][link]
etiology of, [link][link]
evaluation of, [link][link]
excessive daytime sleepiness and, [link], [link], [link], [link], [link]
hallucination and[link], [link]
human leukocyte antigen association and, [link]
hypocretin gene transfer in mice models of, [link][link], [link]t, [link]f
management of, [link][link]
pharmacotherapy for, [link]
prevalence of, [link]
REM sleep behavior disorder and, [link][link], [link], [link]
sleep attacks and, [link], [link], [link]
status cataplecticus and, [link], [link]
types of, [link]
Narcotics, [link]
Nasal breathing problems, [link]
Nasal cannulas, [link]
Nasal congestion, [link]
Nasal injury or bleeding, [link]
Nasal obstruction
obstructive sleep apnea and, [link]t
paradoxical movement of chest wall and abdomen during, [link]f
Nasal pressure transducers, [link]
Nasal thermocouple, [link][link]
Nasopharyngoscopy, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
National Cancer Institute (NCI), [link], [link]
National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research, [link]
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, [link][link]
National Institutes of Health, [link]
National Sleep Foundation, [link], [link]
Nefazodone
effects on sleep, [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
Negative-pressure ventilation, for neuromuscular disorders, [link][link]
Neural crest tumors, [link]
Neurodegenerative disorders, [link][link]
nocturnal stridor and, [link][link]
REM sleep behavior disorder, [link][link], [link]t, [link]t
sleep emergencies in, [link][link]
Neuroleptic-induced akathisia, [link]
Neuroleptic-induced metabolic syndrome, [link]
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, [link]
Neuroleptics
and arousal disorders, [link]
for rhythmic movement disorder, [link]
Neuromuscular disorders, [link]
approach to treatment, [link][link]
motor neuron disease, [link][link], [link]t
muscular dystrophy, [link][link]
myotonic dystrophy, [link][link]
negative-pressure ventilation for, [link][link]
nocturnal hypoxemia and, [link]
noninvasive ventilation for, [link], [link], [link]t
positive-pressure ventilation for, [link]
pulmonary function abnormalities in, [link][link]
respiratory function abnormalities in, [link][link]
respiratory muscle weakness in, [link][link]
sleep-related hypoventilation/hypoxemia due to, [link]
spinal cord injury, [link][link]
Neuromuscular emergencies in sleep, [link][link]
Neuronal transplants, [link][link]
Nicotine. See also [link]
effects on sleep, [link]
Nicotine replacement therapy, [link]
Nifedipine
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
Night eating syndrome (NES), [link][link]
distinguished from sleep-related eating disorder, [link], [link]
Nightmare, defined, [link]
Nightmares, iatrogenic. See also [link]
background, [link]
medications associated with, [link], [link]t
treatment for, [link][link]
Night shift, circadian desynchrony during, [link][link], [link]f
Night sweats
and cancer, [link][link]
Nitrazepam
for insomnia, [link]
and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
Nocturnal asthma, [link]
Nocturnal bradycardia and long QT syndrome, [link]
Nocturnal bronchospasm due to asthma, [link]
Nocturnal cramps, [link][link]
Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE), [link][link], [link]f. See also [link]
Nocturnal hypoxemia
differential diagnosis of, [link][link]
in obstructive sleep apnea, [link][link]
treatment for, [link]
Nocturnal paroxysmal dystonias (NPDs), [link]
autosomal dominant, [link]
Nocturnal stridor, in multiple system atrophy, [link][link]
treatment for, [link][link]
Nocturnal wandering, [link]
Non-benzodiazepine sedative–hypnotics, for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV)
for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, [link][link]
for Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, [link]
for spinal cord injury, [link]
therapies, [link]
for thoracic cage and chronic neuromuscular disorders, [link], [link], [link]t
Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, [link]. See also [link]
alveolar hypoventilation during, [link]
cardiovascular control during, [link]
central apnea during, [link]
high-altitude periodic breathing during, [link]
hypercapnic ventilatory response during, [link]
hypoxic ventilatory response during, [link]
oxygen desaturation during, [link]
parasomnias associated with, [link], [link]
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDS)
for cancer, [link]
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
for migraine, [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (NERI)
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
Norepinephrine beta-blockers, nightmares and, [link]t
Normal sleep, [link][link], [link]. See also [link]
cardiovascular control during, [link]
circadian sleep–wake rhythm and, [link][link], [link]f
hemodynamic effects of, [link]
physiology of, [link]
North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, [link]
NREM parasomnias, [link]
Nucleus retroambiguus, [link]
Nucleus solitarius, [link], [link]f
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), [link]
diagnosis of, [link]
prevalence of, [link]
transcutaneous CO2 monitoring for, [link]
treatment for, [link][link]
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), [link]. See also [link]
acute and emergent cardiac events in, [link][link]
and acute cardiac events, [link][link]
ambulatory surgery for, [link][link]
and arrhythmias, [link][link]
atrial overdrive pacing for, [link]
atrial fibrillation during sleep and, [link], [link]
bariatric surgery and, [link]
bradyarrhythmias and, [link][link]
cardiac surgery and, [link][link]
cardiovascular disease and, [link][link]
cardiovascular responses during, [link]
conditions predisposing to, [link]t
continuous positive airway pressure and, [link], [link], [link], [link], [link]
difficult airway management for, [link][link]
etiology of, [link][link]
evaluation of, [link][link]
headache and, [link], [link], [link][link]
immediate postoperative monitoring and, [link]
insomnia and, [link][link]
intra-arterial blood pressure during, [link]f
medical conditions associated with, [link]t
morbidity and, [link]
myocardial ischemia and, [link][link], [link]f
nocturnal hypoxemia in, [link][link]
orthopedic surgery and, [link], [link]f
pathophysiology of, [link][link], [link]f, [link][link]
percutaneous coronary intervention, [link]
perioperative anesthetic management of, [link][link], [link]t
pharmacologic treatment for, [link][link]
polysomnography for, [link]
post-stroke treatment for, [link][link]
prevalence of, [link], [link][link]
reduced activity of upper airway dilating muscles during, [link]
respiratory responses during, [link]
as risk factor for perioperative complications, [link][link]
risk factors of, [link]
screening questionnaires for, [link], [link]t
sleep-disordered breathing and, [link]
stroke and, [link][link]
and sudden death, [link][link], [link]f
in surgical patients, prevalence of, [link]
sympathetic activity during, [link]f
tachyarrhythmias and, [link][link]
treatment for, [link]
undergoing surgery, perioperative outcomes in, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
undergoing surgery, preoperative assessment of, [link][link]
unique features and diagnostic criteria, [link]
Obstructive sleep apnea, in infants
clinical features of, [link]
management of, [link][link]
predisposing factors of, [link][link], [link]t
Obstructive sleep apnea, perioperative care of, [link][link]
outcomes in undergoing surgery, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
overnight oximetry, role of, [link][link]
physical examination, [link]
physiology of sleep in perioperative care, [link][link]
screening questionnaire, [link][link]
surgical setting, [link][link]
Obstructive sleep apnea, perioperative care of, [link][link]
head positions, [link]
intensive monitoring, [link]
perioperative continuous positive airway pressure, [link][link], [link]f
sedation and analgesia, [link]
supplemental oxygen, [link][link]
Obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), [link]
in critically ill patients, [link]
Occupational effects, of sleep deprivation, [link][link]
Ocular injury, [link]
Olanzapine
effects on sleep, [link], [link]t, [link]
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link], [link]
for sleepwalking, [link]
Older adults, [link][link]
circadian rhythm sleep disorders in, [link][link]
insomnia in, [link][link], [link]
neurodegenerative disorders in, [link][link]
periodic limb movement disorder in, [link]
restless legs syndrome in, [link][link]
sleep-disordered breathing in, [link][link]
sleep problems and medical illness, [link]
sleep–wake disturbances in, [link]
Ondine’s curse syndrome, [link]
Opiates, for movement disorders, [link]
Opioids
effects on sleep, [link][link], [link]t
for cancer, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link][link]
for restless legs syndrome, [link], [link], [link]
Orexin-A. See [link]
Orexin-B. See [link]
Oronasal thermistors, [link]
Oropharyngeal obstruction, obstructive sleep apnea and, [link]t
Orphenadrine, for nocturnal cramps, [link]
Orthopedic surgery, obstructive sleep apnea and, [link], [link]f
Osteoarthritis, [link]t, [link][link]
Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study, [link]
Overlap syndrome, [link], [link]
Overnight oximetry, role in obstructive sleep apnea, [link][link]
Oxcarbazepine
effects on sleep, [link]
Oxprenolol, nightmares and, [link]t
Oxygen desaturation index (ODI), [link]
Oxygen supplementation, [link]
Oxygen therapy, [link][link]
for chronic kidney disease, [link]
for obesity hypoventilation syndrome, [link]
Pacemaker, [link]
Pain
for obesity hypoventilation syndrome, [link]
and sleep and, [link]
Panic, [link]
Paradoxical insomnia, [link]. See also [link]
Parasomnia overlap syndrome, [link][link]
abnormal dreams, [link][link]
associated with danger to self, [link]
in critically ill patients, [link]
emergent, [link][link]
iatrogenic nightmares, [link][link]
primary, [link], [link]. See also [link]; [link]
REM sleep behavior disorder, [link][link]
secondary, [link]
sexsomnia, [link][link]
sleep eating, [link][link]
sleepwalking, [link][link]
Parkinson’s disease
compulsive/impulsive behavior and, [link]
insomnia and, [link]
nocturnal leg cramps and, [link]
REM sleep behavior disorder and, [link], [link][link]
Paroxetine
for hot flashes, [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Paroxysmal arousals, [link]
Paroxysmal hemicrania, [link]
management of, [link]
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, [link]
congestive heart failure with, [link]
Partial seizure, [link]. See also [link]
effect of sleep on, [link]
Partial sleep deprivation, [link]. See also [link]
Pentazocine, REM sleep behavior disorder and, [link]
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
obstructive sleep apnea and, [link]
Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), [link], [link], [link][link]
in older adults, [link]
Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS)
aging and, [link], [link]
sleep bruxism and, [link]
Periodic motor activation, [link]
Personality disorders, [link][link]
Pharmacotherapy
for cancer-related insomnia, [link]
for insomnia, [link]
for smoking cessation, [link]
Pharmacotherapy, for narcolepsy, [link]
Phase–response curve (PRC)
light, [link], [link]f
melatonin, [link][link], [link]f
Phencyclidine
effects on sleep, [link]
Phenmetrazine, nightmares and, [link]t
Phenobarbital
effects on sleep, [link]
Phenylpropanolamine
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
Phenytoin
effects on sleep, [link]t
for seizure disorder, [link], [link]
PHOX2B gene, de novo mutations of, [link]
Physical activity. See [link]
Physicians Health Study, [link]
Physiologic changes
respiration and sleep, [link][link]
Pickwickian syndrome, [link]
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, [link]
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), [link], [link]
Pneumonitis
hypersensitivity, [link]
interstitial, [link]
Pneumotachometers, [link]
Polychondritis, [link]
Polysomnography, [link], [link][link]
for child maltreatment, [link]
for chronic renal disease, [link]
emergencies due to, [link]t, [link][link]
emergencies during, [link]t, [link][link]
insomnia and, [link]
managing respiratory emergencies during, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link], [link], [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea associated with sudden death, [link]
overnight monitoring and, [link][link]
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
respiratory distress during, [link][link]
for seizure disorder, [link][link], [link][link]f
Ponto-geniculo-occipital spikes (PGO), [link]
Portable sleep screening devices, for chronic renal disease, [link][link]
Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy
continuous. See [link]
expiratory, [link]
inspiratory, [link]
for obesity hypoventilation syndrome, [link]
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
for sleep-related breathing disorders, [link][link]
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)
pre-induction and maintenance, [link]
Positive-pressure ventilation, for neuromuscular disorders, [link]
Post-polio syndrome, [link], [link]
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), [link]
Pramipexole
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link], [link]
for restless legs syndrome, [link], [link]
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Prazosin
and post-traumatic stress disorder, [link]
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
Prednisone, systemic lupus erythematosus and, [link]
Pre-dormitum of Critchley, [link]
Pregabalin
for cancer-related insomnia, [link]
effects on sleep, [link]
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link][link]
and restless legs syndrome, [link]
for seizure disorder, [link], [link]
Priapism
effects on sleep, [link]
Primidone
effects on sleep, [link]
Prochlorperazine
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for restless legs syndrome, [link]t
Progressive bulbar atrophy, [link]
Progressive relaxation, for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Prophylactic naps, [link][link]. See also [link]
Propofol
effects on sleep, [link]t
for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Propranolol, nightmares and, [link]t
Propriospinal myoclonus (PSM)
at wake–sleep transition, [link], [link][link], [link]f
Protriptyline, for status cataplecticus, [link]
Psychiatric disorders, [link][link]
anxiety disorders, [link]
and chronic kidney disease, [link]
mood disorders, [link]
personality disorders, [link][link]
schizophrenia, [link][link]
substance use disorders, [link][link]
Psychiatric medications, sleep effects of, [link][link]
Psychological assessment, for chronic renal disease, [link]
Psychological effects, caused by sleep deprivation, [link]
Psychological intervention, for cancer-related insomnia, [link]
Psychosis
from ICU sleep deprivation, [link][link]
Psychotherapy, for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
Pulmonary arterial hypertension, in sleep apnea, [link]
Pulmonary aspiration and gastroesophageal reflux disease, [link]
Pulmonary function abnormalities, [link][link]
Pulmonary function testing, for obesity hypoventilation syndrome, [link]
Pulmonary parenchymal pathology
sleep-related hypoventilation/hypoxemia due to, [link][link]
Pulmonary-related issues, during sleep, [link][link]
apnea-related, [link][link]
evaluation of, [link][link]
non-apnea-related, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
Pulmonary thromboembolism, [link]
Pulmonary vascular pathology
sleep-related hypoventilation/hypoxemia due to, [link][link]
Pulse oximetry monitoring, [link][link]
Pump inhibitor drugs (PPIs)
for gastroesophageal reflux disease, [link][link]
Quality of life, [link], [link]
and chronic kidney disease, [link]
Quazepam, for sleepwalking, [link]
Quetiapine
effects on sleep, [link]
for sleepwalking, [link]
Quinapril, nightmares and, [link]t
Quinine sulphate, for nocturnal cramps, [link][link]
Radioimmunoassay, [link]
Ramelteon, for insomnia, [link]
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, [link]. See also [link]
alveolar hypoventilation during, [link]
cardiovascular control during, [link]
central apnea during, [link]
hypercapnic ventilatory response during, [link]
hypoxic ventilatory response during, [link]
muscle atonia and, [link], [link], [link][link], [link]
oxygen desaturation during, [link]
parasomnias associated with, [link]
phasic excitation of motoneurons during, [link]
without atonia, [link][link], [link]f
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV), [link]t, [link]
Rectal diazepam gel, for seizure disorder, [link][link]
Recuperative naps, [link][link]. See also [link]
Reflex myoclonus, [link]
Regional anesthesia technique, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link]
Relaxation training, for cancer-related insomnia, [link]
Remifentanil, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link][link]
REM locked headache. See [link]; [link]
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), [link][link], [link][link], [link]t, [link], [link][link], [link]
agrypnia excitata, [link]
background, [link][link]
clinical features of, [link][link]
confusional arousals and, [link]
dementia with Lewy body disease and, [link]
diagnosis of, [link][link], [link]f
differential diagnosis of, [link]
dopaminergic abnormalities in, [link]
dream-enacting behavior and, [link][link], [link]t
extrapyramidal disease and, [link][link]
injuries associated with, [link]t, [link]t
medications associated with, [link]
narcolepsy and, [link][link], [link], [link]
parasomnia overlap syndrome, [link][link]
Parkinson’s disease and, [link], [link][link]
pathogenesis of, [link][link], [link]t
phasic, [link][link]
prevalence of, [link], [link]
tonic, [link][link]
treatment for, [link][link], [link][link], [link][link]
Renal anemia, [link]
Renal disorder. See [link]
Renal replacement therapy, for chronic kidney disease, [link], [link][link]
Renal transplantation, for chronic kidney disease, [link], [link][link]
Respiration
airflow monitoring and, [link][link]
carbon dioxide monitoring and, [link][link]
pulse oximetry monitoring and, [link][link], [link]f
Respiratory airflow monitoring sensors, [link][link]
Respiratory depression, anesthesia and, [link][link]
Respiratory distress, during polysomnography, [link][link]
Respiratory disturbance index. See [link]
Respiratory effort-related arousals, [link][link], [link]f
Respiratory emergencies management, in sleep laboratory, [link][link]
assessing the patient, [link]
comorbid disorders, therapy of, [link]
general measures, [link][link]
noninvasive ventilation therapies, [link]
oxygen therapy, [link][link]
positive airway pressure, [link]
Respiratory loading, [link][link]
Respiratory muscle weakness, in neuromuscular disorders, [link][link]
Respiratory system during sleep, physiology of, [link][link]
Restless legs syndrome (RLS), [link], [link], [link], [link][link]
augmentation causes, [link]
augmentation diagnosis and assessment, [link][link], [link]t
augmentation management, [link][link]
augmentation presentation, [link][link], [link]t
chronic renal disease and, [link][link]
compulsive/impulsive behavior and, [link][link], [link]t
in critically ill patients, [link]
diagnostic criteria for, [link]t
excessive daytime sleepiness and, [link][link], [link]t
iron deficiency and, [link]
lifestyle changes, [link]
medical status changes and, [link]
due to medication changes, [link][link]
in older adults, [link][link]
sudden worsening of, [link][link], [link]t
Restless legs syndrome, surgery for, [link][link]
causes, [link]t
etiology, [link][link]
evaluation of, [link]
iron depletion, management of, [link][link]
pharmacological treatment, [link][link], [link]t, [link]t
unique features and diagnostic criteria, [link]
Restrictive lung disease, nocturnal hypoxemia and, [link]
Reverse Trendelenburg position
to improve oxygenation in anesthetized obese patients, [link]
Rheumatic diseases, [link]
causing sleep disturbances, [link][link]t
cytokine levels and, [link][link]
sleep disorders in, [link]t, [link][link]
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), [link], [link]t, [link][link]
juvenile, [link]t, [link]
sleep disorders in, [link]
sleep disturbances in, [link][link]
treatment for, [link][link]
Rhythmic movement disorder, [link]
Risperidone
effects on sleep, [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
for sleep-related eating disorder, [link]
for sleepwalking, [link]
Rochester Epidemiology Project, [link]
Ropinirole
and nightmares, [link]t
for restless leg syndrome, [link], [link]
for sleep attacks/sleepiness, [link]t
Rotigotine, for restless legs syndrome, [link]
Sarcoidosis, [link]
Scalenes, [link]
Schizophrenia, [link][link]
Scleroderma, [link]t
Screening questionnaire, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link][link], [link], [link]t
Secondary headache, [link]
Second International Study of Infarct Survival (ISIS), [link]
Sedation
cases with monitored anesthesia care, [link]
sleep and, [link]
Sedative–hypnotics
and arousal disorders, [link]
effects on sleep, [link][link], [link]t
and nightmares, [link]t
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
for sleep disturbances, [link], [link]
for sleepwalking, [link][link]
Seizure disorders, [link][link]
antiepileptic drugs, effect of, [link][link]
bradycardia during, [link]
classification of, [link]
effect of sleep on, [link][link]
effect on sleep, [link][link]
emergency management of, [link][link], [link]t
insomnia and, [link]
medical management of, [link]
polysomnography for, [link][link], [link][link]f
recorded during sleep, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
tonic-clonic seizure, [link][link], [link]t
vagal nerve stimulator, effect of, [link]
Selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
effects on sleep, [link], [link], [link]t
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
for hot flashes, [link]
for isolated sleep paralysis, [link]
for narcolepsy, [link]
for periodic limb movement disorder, [link]t
for REM-related symptoms in narcolepsy, [link]
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link], [link], [link]
for restless legs syndrome, [link], [link]t
for sleepwalking, [link]
Selegiline, nightmares and, [link]t
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
for hot flashes, [link]
for REM-related symptoms in narcolepsy, [link]
and REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
and restless legs syndrome, [link]
Sexsomnia
background, [link][link]
medications associated with, [link][link]
treatment for, [link][link]
SF36 questionnaire, [link], [link]
Shift work, [link][link]
and cardiovascular disease, [link]
and metabolic syndrome, [link]
Shift work sleep disorder, [link][link], [link][link], [link]f
hypnotic medications for, [link]
Shy-Drager syndrome, [link]
Sickle cell disease, oxyhemoglobin desaturation and, [link]
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
for arousal disorders, [link]
for REM sleep behavior disorder, [link]
for status cataplecticus, [link]
Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), [link][link]t, [link][link]
sleep disorders in, [link]
sleep disturbances in, [link]
Sleep
affected by headache, [link]
age-related changes in, [link][link]
alveolar hypoventilation during, [link]
cardiologic emergencies in, [link][link]
cerebrovascular insufficiency in, [link], [link][link]
ECG changes during, [link][link]
effect of antiepileptic drugs on, [link][link]
effect of seizures on, [link][link]
effect of vagal nerve stimulator on, [link]
effect on seizure, [link][link]
electrical status epilepticus of, [link]f, [link]f
and fatigue, [link], [link]
gastroesophageal reflux disease during, [link][link]
headache affected by, [link][link], [link]t
in intensive care unit. See [link]
movement disorders in, [link][link]
non-rapid eye movement. See [link]
nonrestorative, [link]
normal, [link][link], [link]
and pain, [link]
and pain sensitivity, [link]
physiology of respiratory system during, [link][link]
rapid eye movement. See [link]
seizures recorded during, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
stroke in, [link][link]
sudden death during, [link][link], [link]f
Sleep apnea, [link][link]
central, [link][link], [link]
chronic renal disease and, [link]
complex, [link], [link]
hypercapnic, [link]
obstructive. See [link]
physiology of respiratory system during, [link][link]
pulmonary arterial hypertension in, [link]
sleep bruxism and, [link]
Sleep attacks, [link][link]
narcolepsy and, [link], [link], [link], [link]
Sleep bruxism, [link][link]
diagnosis of, [link], [link]f
distinguished from sleep-related faciomandibular myoclonus, [link][link], [link]f
types of, [link]
Sleep deprivation, [link][link]. See also [link]
cardiac events and, [link][link]
cardiovascular effects on, [link]
defined, [link]
driving and, [link]
economic consequences of, [link]
endocrine effects on, [link][link]
gastrointestinal effects on, [link][link]
immune function effects on, [link]
integumentary effects on, [link]
management of, [link][link]
and medicolegal issues, [link][link]
occupational effects of, [link][link]
overnight increase in blood pressure and, [link]
partial, [link]
psychological effects on, [link]
psychosis from ICU, [link][link]
risk of mortality and, [link]
societal effects of, [link][link]
stage[link], [link]
thermoregulation effects on, [link]
total, [link]
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB)
arousal disorders and, [link][link]
cancer and, [link]
and neuromuscular disorders, [link][link]
obstructive sleep apnea associated with myocardial ischemia, [link]
in older adults, [link][link]
post-traumatic stress disorder and, [link]
as risk factor for stroke, [link]
in sleep-disordered breathing, [link][link], [link][link]f
and spinal cord injury, [link]
stroke as risk factor for, [link]
Sleep disruption, headache and, [link]
Sleep disruption in ICU, causes of, [link]t
acute illness, severity of, [link][link]
comorbidities, [link]
light, [link][link]
mechanical ventilation, [link]
medications, [link]
noise, [link]
patient care, [link]
Sleep disturbance, suicidality and, [link][link]
Sleep drunkenness. See [link]
Sleep eating
background, [link][link]
medications associated with, [link][link]
treatment for, [link][link]
Sleep emergencies in children, [link][link]
apparent life-threatening episodes, [link][link], [link]t
child maltreatment, [link][link]
major depressive disorder, [link][link]
severe obstructive sleep apnea, [link][link], [link]t
status cataplecticus, [link][link]
sudden infant death syndrome, [link][link], [link]f
Sleep forensics, [link][link]
clinical guidelines to, [link][link]
legal thought, evolution of, [link][link]
neuroscience of consciousness, [link][link]
sleep medicine specialist, role of, [link][link]
Sleep–headache relationship, mechanisms of, [link][link]
Sleep Heart Health Study, [link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link], [link]
Sleep hygiene
for cancer-related insomnia, [link]
education, isolated sleep paralysis, [link]
for fibromyalgia syndrome, [link]
good, [link]
training, [link]
Sleep hypoventilation syndrome (SHVS)
anesthesia for, [link]
Sleep inertia, [link], [link]
Sleepiness, [link][link]
Sleep interview, for chronic renal disease, [link]
Sleep laboratory, emergency management of seizures in, [link][link], [link]t
Sleep loss in ICU, consequences of
cardiovascular stress, [link]
cognitive dysfunction and mood disorders, [link]
immune function, [link]
insulin resistance, [link][link]
Sleep-onset REM episode (SOREM), [link], [link], [link]
Sleep paralysis, [link][link]
Sleep problems
medical illness and, [link]
medications for, [link][link]
Sleep promotion in ICU
nonpharmacologic measures, [link]
pharmacologic measures, [link][link]
Sleep questionnaires, for chronic renal disease, [link], [link]
Sleep-related abnormal swallowing syndrome, [link]
Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD), [link]
background, [link][link]
Cheyne-Stokes breathing and, [link], [link]
medications associated with, [link][link]
treatment for, [link][link]
Sleep-related choking syndrome, [link], [link]
Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), [link][link], [link][link]
distinguished from night eating syndrome, [link], [link]
prevalence of, [link]
Sleep-related faciomandibular myoclonus (SFMN)
distinguished from sleep bruxism, [link][link], [link]f
Sleep-related hypoventilation/hypoxemia
due to lower airway obstruction, [link][link]
due to neuromuscular and chest wall disorders, [link][link]
due to pulmonary parenchymal pathology, [link][link]
due to pulmonary vascular pathology, [link][link]
Sleep-related laryngospasm, [link], [link]
Sleep-related psychiatric emergencies, [link][link]
Sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder (RMD)
diagnosis of, [link], [link]f
etiology of, [link]
treatment for, [link][link]
types of, [link]
Sleep-related violence, [link][link]. See also [link]
Sleep sex, [link]
Sleep starts, [link][link]
Sleep state instability, [link]
Sleep termination
cardiac events and, [link]
myocardial infarction and, [link][link], [link][link]f
sudden cardiac death and, [link][link]
Sleep terrors. See also [link], [link]; [link], [link]
clinical features of, [link]
Sleep–wake cycle, circadian regulation of, [link][link], [link]f
Sleepwalking. See [link]
Slow-wave sleep. See [link]
Snoring
headache and, [link]
obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and, [link]
sudden cardiac death and, [link]
Societal effects, of sleep deprivation, [link][link]
Sodium oxybate
for excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy, [link]
for insomnia, [link], [link]
for narcolepsy, [link], [link]
for status cataplecticus, [link]
Somnambulism (sleepwalking), [link]
background, [link][link]
clinical features of, [link]
defense, [link][link]
medications associated with, [link][link]
pathogenesis of, [link]
treatment for, [link][link]
Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, [link]
Spinal cord injury (SCI), [link], [link][link]
diaphragm pacing stimulation for, [link][link]
sleep-disordered breathing, prevalence of, [link]
Spondyloarthropathy, [link][link]
Stage[link] sleep deprivation, [link]. See also [link]
Status cataplecticus
in children, [link][link]
clinical features, [link][link]
management of, [link]
narcolepsy and, [link], [link]
Stimulants
and arousal disorders, [link]
and nightmares, [link]t
for sleep deprivation, [link][link]
Stimulus control, for cancer-related insomnia, [link]
STOP-Bang questionnaire, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link], [link]t
STOP questionnaire, for obstructive sleep apnea, [link], [link]t
Stridor, [link]
Stroke
insomnia and, [link]
obstructive sleep apnea and, [link][link]
post-stroke treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, [link][link]
predisposition to respiratory abnormalities. See [link]
as risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing, [link]
in sleep, [link][link]
sleep-disordered breathing as risk factor for, [link]
transient ischemic attack, [link][link], [link]
Stroke in sleep-disordered breathing
autonomic activity, [link][link], [link][link]f
circadian rhythms, [link], [link][link]
Substance abuse, [link]
and chronic kidney disease,