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Vascular Malformations of the Central Nervous Systems 

Vascular Malformations of the Central Nervous Systems
Chapter:
Vascular Malformations of the Central Nervous Systems
Author(s):

Edward R. Smith

, R. Michael Scott

, and Patricia E. Burrows

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780195145052.003.0021
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date: 18 January 2022

Vascular malformations of the central nervous system (CNS) are a heterogenous group of lesions that occur in both the brain and spinal cord. This chapter reviews the pathophysiology of arteriovenous malformation [AVM], capillary malformation [CM] (“capillary telangiectasia”) and venous malformation [VM] in the CNS. In addition, cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), developmental venous anomaly (DVA) and the arteriopathy of moyamoya are also discussed. Recent genetic and molecular biological associations add to the understanding of the development and clinical presentation of these entities. Current treatments, including intra-arterial embolization, radiosurgery and novel surgical approaches are described. Fast-flow vascular malformations presenting in neonates and infants, including vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation and dural and pial arteriovenous fistulae are discussed, with extensive illustration of their treatment.

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