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Henk Giele

and Oliver Cassell

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date: 24 September 2021

Breast cancer 364

Breast reconstruction 367

Nipple–areolar complex reconstruction 373

Chest wall reconstruction 375

Sternum reconstruction 378

Incidence: 1/9 women in USA; 1/12 women in UK.

30% of all cancer in women is of the breast; 1% of male cancers.

Hormonal: increased duration of uninterrupted oestrogen exposure due to menarche <12 years, menopause >55 years, and nulliparous or first child at over 30 years. HRT long duration of the contraceptive pill, and diethylstilboestrol use have also been implicated....

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