Show Summary Details
Page of

Control of pain in labor 

Control of pain in labor
Control of pain in labor

Murray Enkin

, Marc J. N. C. Keirse

, James Neilson

, Caroline Crowther

, Lelia Duley

, Ellen Hodnett

, and Justus Hofmeyr

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 26 October 2020

Chapter 34 discusses control of pain in labor, including non-pharmacological methods (techniques that reduce painful stimuli, maternal movement and position changes, counter-pressure, and abdominal decompression), techniques that activate peripheral sensory receptors (superficial heat and cold, immersion in water during labor and birth, touch and massage, acupuncture and acupressure, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), intradermal injection of sterile water, and aromatherapy), techniques that enhance descending inhibitory pathways (attention focusing and distraction, hypnosis, music and audio-analgesia, and biofeedback), and pharmacological control of pain in labor, including regional analgesia and anesthesia, epidural analgesia, other routes of regional analgesia, systemic agents, opioids, sedatives and tranquilizers, and inhalation analgesia.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.