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Idiopathic/primary syndromes 

Idiopathic/primary syndromes

Ivan Donaldson

, C. David Marsden

, Susanne A. Schneider

, and Kailash P. Bhatia

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date: 04 July 2022

Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease is a clinical syndrome characterized by the gradual onset and progression of tremor, rigidity, akinesia, and defects of posture and locomotion and various non-motor symptoms, not due to any other recognized cause. Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease is defined as the clinical syndrome of parkinsonism associated with a distinctive pathology comprising degeneration of pigmented brainstem nuclei, including the dopaminergic substantia nigra pars compacta, with the presence of Lewy bodies in remaining nerve cells.

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