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Structure and function of the basal ganglia 

Structure and function of the basal ganglia
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date: 29 May 2020

A complete list of structures involved in movement is very extensive and includes the motor cortex, the premotor cortices cortico-spinal tracts, cerebellum, many of the ‘basal ganglia’, various brainstem nuclei and their spinal connections, plus the lower motor neuron. In addition, sensory input is required at many levels in the nervous system to modulate motor activity appropriate to the changing environment. ‘A motor system without sensory control is a fiction, not even a useful fiction’ (Jung and Hassler 1960). An inclusive review of all structures involved in control of movement would cover much of the whole topic of neuro-anatomy. The present chapter is restricted to those that are affected in the diseases grouped under the heading of ‘movement disorders’. Thus it concentrates on the basal ganglia and their connections plus the cerebellum and part of the cerebral cortex.

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