Show Summary Details
Page of

Other acquired secondary (symptomatic) dystonic syndromes 

Other acquired secondary (symptomatic) dystonic syndromes
Other acquired secondary (symptomatic) dystonic syndromes

Ivan Donaldson

, C. David Marsden

, Susanne A. Schneider

, and Kailash P. Bhatia

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 22 January 2022

This chapter deals with a series of miscellaneous acquired secondary dystonic syndromes. This wide range of conditions include those with a vascular cause, such as vasculitis, which often causes chorea and ballismus, but can also cause dystonia in some cases. Both viral and bacterial infections can cause dystonia. Viral infections that have been associated with dystonia include varicella, persistent measles infections and AIDS. Bacterial infections can also cause dystonic movements, with both tuberculosis and syphilis reported to do so in some cases. Demyelinating diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis), head trauma and hypoxia (for example induced by CO, cyanide or anaesthetic complications) can all also cause dystonia. A wide range of drugs can induce acute dystonic reactions, including drugs that either block dopamine receptors (e.g. phenothiazines, butyrophenones) or deplete central dopamine levels (e.g. tetrabenazine). Anticholinergic drugs can also induce acute reactions; these include tricyclic antidepressants and some oral or nasal decongestants. Other drugs that cause acute dystonic reactions include antibiotics, lithium cocaine, anticonvulsants (usually when overdosed) and serotonin uptake blockers. Other causes of acquired dystonia include wasp sting encephalopathy, degenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, spinal cord disorders and tumours and peripheral nerve issues.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.