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date: 21 May 2022

Chapter 97 reviews leprosy (Hansen disease), which is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae. The disease is still endemic in various regions of the world with 70% of cases in India, Myanmar, and Nepal. Skin and peripheral nerves are primarily affected. Nerve involvement results in loss of sensory and motor function, which may lead to frequent trauma and amputation. Nerve abscesses may occur in various forms of leprosy because of caseation of nerve fasciculi. The ulnar nerve is most commonly involved. Ulcers, osteomyelitis, periostitis, and other neuropathic changes in the bones of the hands and feet are the result of prolonged anesthetic changes seen in leprosy patients. Radiography is the initial imaging technique for bone lesions. US and MRI are used in the evaluation of nerve involvement.

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