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Fungal and Higher Bacterial Infections 

Fungal and Higher Bacterial Infections
Chapter:
Fungal and Higher Bacterial Infections
Author(s):

Remide Arkun

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190938178.003.0091
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date: 28 January 2022

Chapter 91 reviews fungal and higher bacterial ınfections. Fungal bone infections are rare disorders, and incidence of these diseases is related to geographic distribution, ethnic and nutritional factors, and occupation. Immunocompromise and traveling can lead to increased incidence. Similar to fungal infections, Actinomycosis and Nocardiosis, which are rare gram-positive filamentous bacterial infections, cause chronic, slowly progressive granulomatous disease. These are a group of chronic disorders, and delayed diagnosis is common although radiographs, CT, bone scan, and MRI are useful for characterization of pathologic changes. Diagnosis is possible with a high index of clinical suspicion, but aspiration or biopsy is necessary for definitive diagnosis.

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