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Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness 

Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness
Chapter:
Neurobiology of Sleep and Wakefulness
Author(s):

Amit Chopra

, Rikinkumar S. Patel

, and Piyush Das

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190929671.003.0003
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date: 31 July 2021

Over the last century, multiple advancements in the field of neuroscience have furthered our understanding of the complex phenomenon of sleep and wakefulness in humans. As outlined in this chapter, electrophysiological markers broadly differentiate between the sleep and wakefulness states, which are essentially regulated by intricate neural networks and neurotransmitter systems in conjunction with circadian, homeostatic, allostatic, and other factors. Alterations of normal mechanisms regulating sleep and wakefulness not only have clinical implications in terms of understanding the genesis of sleep–wake disturbances in primary sleep-wake and psychiatric disorders but also offer the opportunity for development of effective therapeutic interventions.

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