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Neurocognitive Disorders 

Neurocognitive Disorders
Neurocognitive Disorders

Thomas Gossard

, and Erik K. St. Louis

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date: 04 August 2021

Recent evidence for a strong bidirectional relationship between sleep and neurocognitive disorders has emerged. A key function of sleep in brain health is drainage of metabolites and toxins such as beta-amyloid that accumulate with continued wakefulness, making insufficient sleep, and sleep disorders possible contributors toward development of neurodegeneration. Sleep disturbances are frequent in patients with dementia and neurocognitive disorders, including poor sleep efficiency and architecture, sleep disordered breathing, sleep-related limb movements, and parasomnias. This chapter highlights current DSM-5 classifications for the major and mild neurocognitive disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Lewy body diseases and the related prodromal states of amnestic and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment; less common neurodegenerative dementias are also reviewed. Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to key sleep comorbidities in patients with neurocognitive disorders including insomnia, hypersomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, nocturnal movements, and parasomnias are also discussed.

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