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Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders 

Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders
Chapter:
Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders
Author(s):

Ahmed S. BaHammam

, Sulaiman Alhifzi

, and Salih Aleissi

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190929671.003.0015
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date: 31 July 2021

Breathing-related sleep disorders (BRSD) encompass obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea, and hypoventilation disorders. Risk factors for BRSD include obesity, metabolic dysfunction, smoking, use of respiratory depressant medications (like opiates and benzodiazepines), and alcohol consumption, all of which are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. BRSDs are associated with substantial morbidity, disturbed quality of life, and worse prognosis of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Therefore, it is essential for psychiatric care providers to have the clinical skills to recognize BRSDs. Recent studies suggest that the prevalence rates of OSA in psychiatric patients are higher than the general population. Moreover, BRSD’s share common symptoms and risk-factors with psychiatric disorders. A comprehensive clinical approach including a thorough sleep history and examination along with the use of validated screening questionnaires like the STOP-BANG questionnaire, particularly for at-risk patients, is effective in identifying BRSD.

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