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Primer on Depression: Augmentation Strategies 

Primer on Depression: Augmentation Strategies
Primer on Depression: Augmentation Strategies

Naji C. Salloum

, and George I. Papakostas

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date: 21 May 2022

Several first-line antidepressant therapies are currently available for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), but in most patients depression fail to remits after an initial medication trial. In this chapter, we explore the evidence for different augmentation strategies used to enhance the response from an initial antidepressant monotherapy. Atypical antipsychotics, several of which are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as adjunctive agents for the treatment of MDD, and lithium are among the most evidence-based augmentation pharmacotherapies. Other therapies, such as bupropion, mirtazapine, triiodothyronine, nutraceuticals, and psychotherapy, are also commonly used. Additionally, several investigational drugs, including ketamine, esketamine, and ALKS 5461, with novel mechanisms of action, show promise.

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