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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation 

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Chapter:
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Author(s):

J. Kyle Bohman

and Gregory J. Schears

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190909291.003.0021
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date: 28 May 2020

This chapter examines the indications, applications, and complications of modern extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The safety profile of ECMO has improved through advancements in devices, components, and routine management, resulting in improved outcomes and an expanded range of applications. Currently, ECMO can provide cardiopulmonary support in reversible conditions, such as post-cardiotomy shock, acute respiratory failure, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, bridge to transplant, complex airway repairs, and massive pulmonary embolism, among others. The chapter focuses on the primary factors involved in using ECMO successfully: appropriate patient selection, optimal cannulation strategy, and availability of comprehensive medical resources (or a referral agreement with a comprehensive ECMO center) to handle emergent ECMO complications and to absorb the substantial resource requirements of treating patients with ECMO.

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