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date: 11 July 2020

Figures, tables, and boxes are indicated by an italic f, t, or b following the page number.

A
A–a gradient (alveolar to arterial PO2 gradient), [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
AC (assist-control) ventilation, [link]
acute hypercapnia, [link][link], [link]t
acute-on-chronic hypercapnia, [link][link], [link]t
acute-on-chronic RV failure, [link]
acute respiratory distress syndrome. See [link]
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (ARDSnet), [link]
acute RV failure, [link]
adaptive pressure control (aPC) breaths, [link][link], [link]b
adaptive pressure support (aPS) breaths, [link], [link]b
airspace filling diseases, [link]t. See also [link]
airway dead space, [link], [link]f, [link], [link]
airway pressure (PAW)
during expiration, [link]f
extrinsic PEEP and, [link]f, [link]f
inspiratory flow profile and, [link]f, [link]f
intrinsic PEEP and, [link]f
during mechanical ventilation, [link]f
during passive mechanical breath with constant inspiratory flow, [link]f
during passive VC breaths with constant inspiratory flow, [link]f
during passive volume control and pressure control, [link]f
during pressure control breaths, [link]f
during pressure control breaths with PEEP, [link]f
during PS breaths, [link]f
schematic diagram, [link]f
time and, [link]f, [link]f
total PEEP and, [link]f
during VC breaths, [link]f
airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), [link], [link]f, [link]
alveolar dead space, [link]
alveolar gas equation, [link]
alveolar pressure (PALV)
defined, [link]
effects of inspiratory flow profiles on, [link]f
extrinsic PEEP and, [link]f
intrinsic PEEP and, [link]f
during passive mechanical breath with constant inspiratory flow, [link]f
during passive VC breaths with constant inspiratory flow, [link]f
during passive volume control and pressure control, [link]f
PEEP, [link]f, [link]f
during pressure control breaths, [link]f
during pressure control breaths with PEEP, [link]f
during PS breaths, [link]f
during spontaneous ventilation, [link]f
time versus, [link]f
total PEEP and, [link]f
alveolar to arterial PO2 gradient (A–a gradient), [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
alveolar vessels, [link]
ancillary therapies, ARDS, [link], [link]t
aPC (adaptive pressure control) breaths, [link][link], [link]b
applied forces, [link][link]
mechanical ventilation, [link][link]
overview, [link]
spontaneous ventilation, [link][link]
APRV (airway pressure release ventilation), [link], [link]f, [link]
aPS (adaptive pressure support) breaths, [link], [link]b
ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome)
defined, [link], [link]t
mechanical ventilation for, [link][link]
ancillary therapies, [link]
initial ventilator settings, [link][link]
non-ventilatory therapies, [link][link]
oxygenation, [link][link]
ventilator-induced lung injury, [link][link]
ventilatory therapies, [link][link]
pathophysiology, [link][link]
precipitating factors, [link][link]
risk factors, [link]t
severity scale, [link]t
ARDSnet (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network), [link]
arterial blood pressure
during mechanical ventilation when LV preload is low, [link]f
during spontaneous ventilation when LV preload is low, [link]f
arterial hemoglobin saturation (SaO2), [link][link], [link][link], [link]f
arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), [link], [link][link]
carbon dioxide excretion, [link][link]
expired volume versus, [link]f
gas diffusion, [link]
matching ventilation and perfusion, [link][link]
oxygen delivery, [link][link]
arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)
gas diffusion, [link][link]
high, [link]
matching ventilation and perfusion, [link][link]
refractory hypoxemia, [link][link]
relationship between the FIO2 and, [link]f
respiratory acidosis, [link][link]
SaO2 and, [link][link], [link]f
assist-control (AC) ventilation, [link]
auto-triggering, [link], [link]f


B
back-up breaths. See [link]
balloon-and-straw model, [link]f
bi-level ventilation mode, [link][link], [link]f, [link]b, [link]
bi-level ventilators, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f, [link][link], [link]t
blood flow, [link], [link]f
Bohr-Enghoff equation, [link]
breath types
bi-level ventilators, [link]
choosing, [link][link]
ICU ventilators, [link]
terms and abbreviations, [link]t
ventilators, [link]


C
capillary intramural pressure (PcIM), [link]
capnography, [link][link]
carbon dioxide. See also [link]
excretion, [link][link]
O2-CO2 diagram, [link]f
PETCO2, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), [link]f
cardiac output (CO), [link][link]
cardiogenic shock, [link]f
cardiovascular–pulmonary interactions
blood flow/waterfall effect, [link], [link]f
cardiac output, [link][link]
extramural pressure, [link][link]
intramural pressure, [link][link]
mechanical ventilation, [link][link]
effect on LV afterload, [link]
effect on LV preload, [link][link]
effect on RV afterload, [link][link]
effect on RV preload, [link][link]
hemodynamic effects, [link][link]
patient effort during, [link]
PEEP and, [link], [link][link]
volume-pressure curves, [link]f
overview, [link]
spontaneous ventilation, [link][link]
effect on LV afterload, [link]
effect on LV preload, [link]
effect on pulmonary vascular resistance and RV afterload, [link][link]
effect on RV preload, [link]
hemodynamic effects, [link]
left ventricular end-diastolic volume, [link]f
overview, [link][link]
stroke volume, [link]f
variation in arterial blood pressure during, [link]f
stroke volume, [link][link]
transmural pressure, [link][link]
chest wall disease, [link][link]
chronic hypercapnia, [link][link]
chronic RV failure, [link]
CIM (critical illness myopathy), [link]
CIP (critical illness polyneuropathy), [link]
circulatory system, compartments of, [link]f
CMV (Continuous Mandatory Ventilation) mode, [link][link], [link]f, [link]b, [link]f
CMV-PC (Continuous Mandatory Ventilation-Pressure Controlled), [link], [link]f, [link]
CO (cardiac output), [link][link]
COHb (carboxyhemoglobin), [link]f
compliance (C)
alveolar recruitment, [link]
during decremental PEEP titration, [link]f
effect of changes on elastic recoil pressure, [link]f
opposing forces, [link][link]
overview, [link][link]
RV failure and, [link]f
ventricular, [link]
Continuous Mandatory Ventilation (CMV) mode, [link][link], [link]f, [link]b, [link]f
Continuous Mandatory Ventilation- Pressure Controlled (CMV-PC), [link], [link]f, [link]
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), [link][link]
co-oximetry, [link], [link]f
CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), [link][link]
critical illness myopathy (CIM), [link]
critical illness phase, mechanical ventilation, [link]
critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), [link]
critical pressure, [link]
cuff leak test, [link]
cycling ventilators, [link]


D
decremental PEEP titration, [link], [link]f, [link]f, [link]f
delirium, [link]
demand valve (ventilators), [link]
deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHB), [link]f
descending-ramp flow profile (ventilators), [link]
difficult airway, [link]
discontinuing mechanical ventilation, [link][link]
criteria for beginning, [link]b
determining patient readiness, [link], [link]
difficult airway, [link]
difficult-to-wean patient, [link][link]
effective airway clearance, [link][link]
extubation, [link][link]
laryngeal edema, [link]
sedation interruption, [link]
spontaneous breathing trial, [link], [link]t
steps of weaning process, [link]f
driving pressure (DP)
PC breaths, [link], [link]f
PS breaths, [link]
ventilators, [link], [link]
dynamic hyperinflation, [link], [link][link]
adverse hemodynamic effects, [link]
barotrauma, [link]
diagnosis of, [link][link]
clinical indicators, [link][link]
qualitative measures, [link]
quantitative measures, [link][link]
ineffective ventilator triggering, [link][link]
obstructive lung diseases, [link][link]
reduced cardiac output and hypotension, [link]
reducing, [link]
schematic diagrams, [link]f


E
ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), [link][link], [link]f
EDP (end-diastolic pressure), [link]
EDV (end-diastolic volume), [link], [link]f
effective airway clearance, [link][link]
elastance, [link][link], [link]f
elastic recoil, [link][link]
effect of changes on elastic recoil pressure, [link]f
elastic recoil pressure, [link]f
equilibrium volumes, [link], [link]f
pressure needed to balance, [link]f
pressure– volume relationships, [link][link], [link]f
surface forces, [link]
tissue forces, [link]
encephalopathy, [link]
end-diastolic pressure (EDP), [link]
end-diastolic volume (EDV), [link], [link]f
end-expiratory pressure, [link]
end-inspiratory pause, [link], [link]f, [link], [link]f, [link]
endotracheal intubation, [link][link]
end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
EPAP (expiratory positive airway pressure), [link], [link]f
epoprostenol, [link], [link]
equation of motion, [link], [link]
equilibrium volumes (EV), [link]f, [link]f
dynamic hyperinflation, [link]
elastic recoil, [link], [link]f
PEEP and, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f, [link]f, [link]f
in pharmacologically paralyzed patient with dynamic hyperinflation, [link]f
exhalation port (bi-level ventilators), [link]
expiration
airway pressure during, [link]f
ICU ventilators, [link]
mechanical ventilation, [link]
in patients with obstructive lung diseases, [link]f
spontaneous ventilation, [link]
expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP), [link], [link]f
expiratory time (TE), ventilators, [link]
expiratory valve (ventilators), [link]
extra-alveolar vessels, [link]
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), [link][link], [link]f
extramural pressure (PEM), [link][link]
extrinsic PEEP (PEEPE), [link], [link]f
airway pressure, [link]f, [link]f
obstructive lung diseases, [link][link], [link]f
extubation, [link][link]


F
F (fractional concentration), [link]
FIO2 (fractional inspired oxygen concentration), [link], [link], [link]f
FIO2–PEEP combinations, [link]t
flow profiles, ventilators, [link]
flow-triggering. See [link]
fractional concentration (F), [link]
fractional inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2), [link], [link], [link]f
functional residual capacity (FRC)
defined, [link]
elastic recoil pressure, [link]f
pulmonary vascular resistance and, [link]f


G
gas–blood interface, [link][link], [link]f
gas exchange
ARDS, [link][link], [link]t
carbon dioxide excretion, [link][link]
defined, [link]
gas diffusion, [link][link]
overview, [link]
oxygen delivery, [link][link]
partial pressure, [link][link]
schematic representation of, [link]f
ventilation–perfusion matching, [link][link]
ventilators, [link]f
graphical displays (ventilators), [link]
guaranteed breaths. See [link]


H
hemodynamic effects/changes
during mechanical ventilation, [link][link], [link]f
RV failure and, [link]
during spontaneous ventilation, [link]f, [link]
hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), [link][link], [link][link], [link][link]
HHB (deoxygenated hemoglobin), [link]f
high airway pressure alarm, [link][link], [link]b, [link]b
high respiratory rate alarm, [link][link]
hydrostatic pressure, [link][link]
hypercapnia
acute-on-chronic, [link][link], [link], [link]t
chronic, [link][link]
hyper-metabolic states, [link]
hyperventilation, [link]
hypotension
dynamic hyperinflation-induced, [link]
inotropes and, [link]
intubation and, [link][link]
obstructive lung disease and, [link]
PEEPI-induced, [link], [link]
reduced cardiac output and, [link]
RV failure and, [link], [link]f
hypovolemia, [link], [link]f
hypoxemia, [link][link], [link][link], [link]t


I
ICU ventilators
double-limb circuit, [link]f
initial settings, [link]t
noninvasive ventilation, [link][link], [link]
I:E (inspiratory to expiratory time) ratio, [link], [link][link], [link]f
ineffective triggering
deflections and, [link]f
ineffective ventilator triggering, [link][link]
patient–ventilator asynchrony and, [link][link], [link]f
inhaled vasodilators, [link]
inotropes, [link]
inspiration
ICU ventilators, [link]
mechanical ventilation, [link][link]
patient–ventilator asynchrony during, [link][link]
spontaneous ventilation, [link][link]
inspiratory flow
airway pressure and, [link]f, [link]f
airway pressure during passive mechanical breath with constant inspiratory flow, [link]f
effect on alveolar pressure, [link]f
in patients with obstructive lung disease, [link]f
peak inspiratory flow rate, [link]
inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP), [link], [link]f
inspiratory pressure gradient, [link]
inspiratory time (TI), [link], [link], [link], [link]
inspiratory to expiratory time (I:E) ratio, [link], [link][link], [link]f
inspired and exhaled minute ventilation, [link]
intra-abdominal pressure (PAB), [link], [link]f
intramural pressure (PIM), [link][link], [link][link], [link]
intrinsic lung disease, [link]
intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPI), [link], [link]f
dynamic hyperinflation and, [link][link]
obstructive lung disease, [link][link], [link]f
intubation
endotracheal, [link][link]
hypotension and, [link][link]
indications for, [link]t
inverse ratio ventilation (IRV), [link]
IPAP (inspiratory positive airway pressure), [link], [link]f
IRV (inverse ratio ventilation), [link]


L
laryngeal edema, [link]
left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, [link], [link]
left ventricular afterload. See [link]
left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), [link]f
left ventricular end-diastolic volume. See [link]
left ventricular preload. See [link]
LIP (lower inflection point), [link][link], [link]f
low airway pressure alarm, [link]
lower airway, inability to protect, [link][link], [link]t
lower inflection point (LIP), [link][link], [link]f
low respiratory rate alarm, [link]
low tidal volume alarm, [link][link], [link]b
lung compliance. See [link]
lung disease
as cause of ventilator-dependence, [link]
intrinsic, [link]
obstructive, [link]t, [link][link]
restrictive, [link]t
lungs, zones of, [link]f
lung transmural pressure (PlTM)
extrinsic PEEP, [link]f
hemodynamic changes during mechanical ventilation, [link]
hemodynamic changes during spontaneous ventilation, [link]
intrinsic PEEP, [link]f
during spontaneous ventilation, [link][link], [link]f
lung volume, [link]f
pulmonary vascular resistance and, [link], [link]f
time and, [link]f
LV (left ventricular) afterload
effect of mechanical ventilation on, [link]
effect of spontaneous ventilation on, [link]
LV (left ventricular) dysfunction, [link], [link]
LV (left ventricular) preload
effect of mechanical ventilation on, [link][link]
effect of spontaneous ventilation on, [link]
LVEDP (left ventricular end-diastolic pressure), [link]f
LVEDV (left ventricular end-diastolic volume)
contractility and, [link]f
relationship between LVEDP and, [link]f
spontaneous ventilation, [link]f
stroke volume and, [link]f


M
mandatory breaths
CMV mode, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
defined, [link][link]
SIMV mode, [link]f, [link], [link]f
spontaneous mode, [link]f
mean airway pressure (PMEAN), [link]
mean alveolar pressure (MAP), [link], [link]f
mean expired carbon dioxide (PECO2), [link]f
mean systemic pressure (MSP), [link], [link]f
mechanical breaths, [link]
aPC breaths, [link][link], [link]b
aPS breaths, [link], [link]b
PC breaths, [link][link], [link][link], [link]b
PEEP and, [link]f, [link]f
pressure-set breaths, [link]
PS breaths, [link][link], [link]b
VC breaths, [link][link], [link]b
volume-set breaths, [link]
when to use, [link][link]
mechanical ventilation, [link][link]. See also [link]; [link]
ARDS, [link][link]
ancillary therapies, [link]
initial ventilator settings, [link][link]
non-ventilatory therapies, [link][link]
oxygenation, [link][link]
ventilator-induced lung injury, [link][link]
ventilatory therapies, [link][link]
effect on LV afterload, [link]
effect on LV preload, [link][link]
effect on RV afterload, [link][link]
effect on RV preload, [link][link]
expiration, [link]
hemodynamic changes during, [link][link], [link]f
indications for, [link][link], [link]t
hypercapnia, [link]
hypoxemia, [link][link]
inability to protect lower airway, [link][link]
upper airway obstruction, [link]
inspiration, [link][link]
obstructive lung disease, [link][link]
patient effort during, [link][link], [link]
PEEP and, [link][link], [link], [link][link]
RV failure and, [link], [link]
volume-pressure curves, [link]f
metabolic acidosis, [link]
methemoglobin (MetHb), [link]f
modes (ventilator)
bi-level, [link][link], [link]b, [link]
ICU ventilators, [link]
overview, [link]
spontaneous, [link]
terms and abbreviations, [link]t
when to use, [link][link]
MSP (mean systemic pressure), [link], [link]f
multiple triggering, [link]


N
net flow (bi-level ventilators), [link]
neuromuscular blockade, [link][link]
nitric oxide (NO), [link], [link]
NIV (noninvasive ventilation), [link][link]
bi-level ventilators, [link][link]
contraindications for, [link]b
converting to invasive mechanical ventilation, [link][link]
ICU ventilators, [link][link]
indications for, [link]b
monitoring, [link]
patient selection for, [link][link]
patient–ventilator interface, [link]
ventilator settings, [link][link]
NO (nitric oxide), [link], [link]
noninvasive ventilation. See [link]
non-ventilatory therapies (ARDS), [link][link]
norepinephrine, [link]


O
obstructive lung disease, [link][link]
dynamic hyperinflation, [link][link]
mechanical ventilation, [link][link]
over-ventilation, [link][link]
overview, [link]t
opposing forces, [link][link]
compliance, [link][link]
elastic recoil, [link][link]
pressure–volume relationships, [link][link]
surface forces, [link]
tissue forces, [link]
resistance, [link][link]
viscous forces, [link][link]
overview, [link][link]
pressure–flow relationships, [link][link]
Osler, William, [link]
over-sedation, [link]
over-ventilation, [link][link]
oxygen. See also [link]
ARDS, [link][link]
delivery, [link][link], [link][link]
fractional inspired oxygen concentration, [link], [link], [link]f
O2-CO2 diagram, [link]f
oxygen cascade, [link]f
oxygenation
ECMO, [link][link], [link]f
oxygenation failure, [link], [link]t
oxygenation-ventilation failure, [link]
oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve, [link]f, [link], [link]f


P
PAB (intra-abdominal pressure), [link], [link]f
PaCO2. See [link]
PALV. See [link]
PaO2. See [link]
PaO2:FIO2 (P:F) ratio, [link]
partial pressure, [link][link]. See also [link]; [link]
passive exhalation, [link]
passive inflation, [link], [link]f
passive mechanical ventilation, [link]
pathophysiology
ARDS, [link][link]
RV failure, [link]
patient data, displayed on ventilators, [link]b, [link][link]
patient management. See also [link]
adjusting ventilator settings, [link][link]
alveolar to arterial PO2 gradient, [link][link]
arterial hemoglobin saturation, [link][link], [link]f
arterial PCO2, [link]
capnography, [link][link]
co-oximetry, [link], [link]f
discontinuing mechanical ventilation, [link][link], [link]f
criteria for beginning, [link]b
determining patient readiness, [link], [link]
difficult airway, [link]
difficult-to-wean patient, [link][link]
effective airway clearance, [link][link]
extubation, [link][link]
laryngeal edema, [link]
sedation interruption, [link]
spontaneous breathing trial, [link], [link]t
dynamic hyperinflation, [link][link]
consequences of, [link][link]
diagnosis of, [link][link]
management of, [link][link]
indications for mechanical ventilation, [link][link]
hypercapnia, [link]
hypoxemia, [link][link]
inability to protect lower airway, [link][link]
upper airway obstruction, [link]
intrinsic PEEP, [link][link]
noninvasive ventilation, [link][link]
bi-level ventilators, [link][link]
converting to invasive mechanical ventilation, [link][link]
ICU ventilators, [link][link]
monitoring, [link]
patient selection for, [link][link]
patient–ventilator interface, [link]
ventilator settings, [link][link]
obstructive lung disease, [link][link]
dynamic hyperinflation, [link][link]
mechanical ventilation, [link][link]
over-ventilation, [link][link]
oxygen content and delivery, [link][link]
partial pressure of oxygen, [link][link], [link]f
patient–ventilator asynchrony, [link][link]
P:F ratio, [link]
physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
pulse oximetry, [link][link]
respiratory failure, [link][link]
hypercapnia, [link][link]
oxygenation failure, [link], [link]t
oxygenation-ventilation failure, [link]
ventilation failure, [link][link]
respiratory mechanics, [link][link]
airway and alveolar pressures, [link][link]
compliance, [link][link]
resistance, [link][link]
RV failure, [link][link]
cardiogenic shock, [link]f
inotropes, [link]
lung compliance and, [link]f
mechanical ventilation and, [link], [link]
optimize RV preload, [link]
pathophysiology of, [link]
pulmonary vasodilators, [link]
RV dilation, [link]f
vasopressors, [link]
shunt fraction, [link]
spontaneous breathing trial, [link][link]
venous admixture, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
writing ventilator orders, [link][link]
patient-triggered breaths, [link][link], [link]f
patient–ventilator asynchrony, [link][link]
during inspiration, [link][link]
during triggering, [link][link]
patient–ventilator interface (noninvasive ventilation), [link]
PAW. See [link]
PBS (pressure at the body surface), [link]f
PC (pressure control) breaths, [link][link], [link][link], [link]b
PcIM (capillary intramural pressure), [link]
PEA (pulseless electrical activity), [link]
peak airway pressure (PPEAK), [link], [link]f, [link], [link]f
peak inspiratory flow rate (ventilators), [link]
PECO2 (mean expired carbon dioxide), [link]f
PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure), [link]f, [link]f. See also [link]; [link]; [link]
decremental PEEP titration, [link], [link]f, [link]f, [link]f
FIO2–PEEP combinations, [link]t
mechanical ventilation, [link][link], [link], [link][link]
methods of selecting, [link]t
pressure–time curves, [link]f
ventilator-induced lung injury, [link][link]
ventilator orders, [link][link]
ventilators, [link][link]
PEEPE. See [link]
PEEPI. See [link]
PEEPT. See [link]
PEM (extramural pressure), [link][link]
PER (pressure needed to balance elastic recoil), [link]f
PETCO2 (end-tidal carbon dioxide), [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
P:F (PaO2:FIO2) ratio, [link]
physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
PIM (intramural pressure), [link][link], [link][link], [link]
plateau pressure (PPLAT), [link], [link]f, [link], [link]f, [link], [link]f
pleural pressure (PPL), [link]f
hemodynamic changes during mechanical ventilation, [link]
hemodynamic changes during spontaneous ventilation, [link]
during passive mechanical breath with constant inspiratory flow, [link]f
PEEP, [link]f, [link]f
during spontaneous ventilation, [link]f
PlTM. See [link]
PMEAN (mean airway pressure), [link]
pneumopericardium, [link]
pneumoperitoneum, [link]
pneumothorax, [link]
positive end-expiratory pressure. See [link]
PPEAK (peak airway pressure), [link], [link]f, [link], [link]f
PPL. See [link]
PPLAT (plateau pressure), [link], [link]f, [link], [link]f, [link], [link]f
pressure at the body surface (PBS), [link]f
pressure control (PC) breaths, [link][link], [link][link], [link]b
pressure–flow relationships, [link][link], [link]f
pressure needed to balance elastic recoil (PER), [link]f
pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC), [link]
pressure-set breaths, [link]
pressure support (PS) breaths, [link][link], [link]f, [link]b
pressure support (PS) spontaneous breathing trial, [link][link], [link]t
pressure–time curves
mechanical ventilation, [link]f
PEEP and, [link]f
pressure-triggering, [link]
pressure–volume relationship, [link][link], [link]f
prone positioning, [link][link], [link]t
PRVC (pressure-regulated volume control), [link]
PS (pressure support) breaths, [link][link], [link]f, [link]b
PS spontaneous breathing trial, [link][link], [link]t
PT (total pressure), [link]
PTM (transmural pressure), [link], [link]f, [link][link]
pulmonary vascular diseases, [link]t
pulmonary vascular resistance. See [link]
pulmonary vasodilators, [link]
pulseless electrical activity (PEA), [link]
pulse oximetry, [link][link]
PV (viscous forces), [link]f
PVR (pulmonary vascular resistance)
effect of spontaneous ventilation on, [link][link]
lung volume and, [link], [link]f


Q
qualitative measures (of dynamic hyperinflation), [link]
quantitative measures (of dynamic hyperinflation), [link][link]


R
radial traction (extra-alveolar vessels), [link]
recovery phase (mechanical ventilation), [link]
recruitment maneuver (RM), [link], [link]f
refractory hypoxemia, [link][link]
residual volume (RV), [link]f
resistance (R)
effect of changes on elastic recoil pressure, [link]f
opposing forces, [link][link]
overview, [link][link]
respiratory acidosis, [link][link]
respiratory alkalosis, [link]
respiratory failure, [link][link]
diagnostic features, [link]t
hypercapnia, [link][link]
oxygenation failure, [link], [link]t
oxygenation-ventilation failure, [link]
ventilation failure, [link][link]
respiratory mechanics, [link][link]
airway and alveolar pressures, [link][link]
applied forces, [link][link]
mechanical ventilation, [link][link]
opposing forces, [link]
spontaneous ventilation, [link][link]
ARDS, [link], [link]t
compliance, [link][link]
opposing forces, [link][link]
compliance, [link][link]
elastic recoil, [link][link]
resistance, [link][link]
viscous forces, [link][link]
resistance, [link][link]
respiratory system, [link]
time constant, [link]
respiratory rate (RR), [link]
respiratory system
balloon-and-straw model, [link]f
compliance during decremental PEEP titration, [link]f
equation of motion, [link]
overview, [link]
time constant, [link]
two-compartment model of, [link]f, [link]f, [link]f, [link]f
restrictive lung disease, [link]t
right ventricular afterload. See [link]
right ventricular failure. See [link]
right ventricular preload. See [link]
RM (recruitment maneuver), [link], [link]f
RR (respiratory rate), [link]
RV (residual volume), [link]f
RV (right ventricular) afterload
effect of mechanical ventilation on, [link][link]
effect of spontaneous ventilation on, [link][link]
RV (right ventricular) failure, [link][link]
acute-on-chronic RV failure, [link]
acute RV failure, [link]
cardiogenic shock, [link]f
chronic RV failure, [link]
inotropes, [link]
lung compliance and, [link]f
mechanical ventilation and, [link], [link]
optimize RV preload, [link]
pathophysiology of, [link]
pulmonary vasodilators, [link]
RV dilation, [link]f
vasopressors, [link]
RV (right ventricular) preload
effect of mechanical ventilation on, [link][link]
effect of spontaneous ventilation on, [link]


S
SaO2 (arterial hemoglobin saturation), [link][link], [link]-[link], [link]f
SBT (spontaneous breathing trial), [link][link], [link]t, [link], [link]t
sedation interruption, [link]
set breath rate (ventilators), [link]
severity scale (ARDS), [link]t
shunt fraction, [link], [link]
SIMV (Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation) mode, [link]f, [link], [link]b, [link]f
SIMV PC, [link], [link]f, [link]
SpO2 (hemoglobin saturation), [link][link], [link][link], [link][link]
spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), [link][link], [link]t, [link], [link]t
spontaneous breath rate (ventilators), [link]
spontaneous breaths, [link], [link]f. See also [link]
spontaneous ventilation, [link][link], [link][link]
alveolar pressure, [link]f
arterial blood pressure when LV preload is low, [link]f
changes in pleural and alveolar pressure, flow and volume, [link]f
effect on LV afterload, [link]
effect on LV preload, [link]
effect on pulmonary vascular resistance and RV afterload, [link][link]
effect on RV preload, [link]
expiration, [link]
hemodynamic changes during, [link]f
hemodynamic effects, [link]
inspiration, [link][link]
intra-abdominal pressure, [link]f
left ventricular end-diastolic volume, [link]f
lung transmural pressure, [link]f
overview, [link][link]
pleural pressure, [link]f
stroke volume, [link]f
variation in arterial blood pressure during, [link]f
spontaneous ventilation mode, [link], [link]f, [link]b
square-wave flow profile (ventilators), [link]
stroke volume (SV)
cardiovascular–pulmonary interactions, [link][link]
contractility and, [link]f
LVEDV and, [link]f
spontaneous ventilation, [link]f
ventricular afterload, [link][link]
ventricular contractility, [link]
ventricular function curve, [link]f
ventricular preload, [link][link]
subcutaneous emphysema, [link]
surface forces (elastic recoil), [link]
SV. See [link]
Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation (SIMV) mode, [link]f, [link], [link]b, [link]f


T
table method (PEEP selection), [link]t, [link]
TE (expiratory time), ventilators, [link]
THb (total hemoglobin), [link][link]
TI (inspiratory time), [link], [link], [link], [link]
tidal volume
inspired and exhaled, [link][link]
low tidal volume ventilator alarm, [link][link], [link]b
during mechanical ventilation, [link]f
physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
ventilator-induced lung injury, [link]
time capnography, [link], [link]f, [link][link], [link]f
time constant, [link]
tissue forces (elastic recoil), [link]
TLC (total lung capacity), [link]f, [link]f
total breath rate (ventilators), [link]
total elastic recoil pressure, [link]
total hemoglobin (THb), [link][link]
total lung capacity (TLC), [link]f, [link]f
total PEEP (PEEPT), [link], [link], [link][link], [link]f
expiratory flow and, [link]f
obstructive lung disease, [link][link], [link]f
total pressure (PT), [link]
T-piece spontaneous breathing trial, [link][link], [link]t
tracheostomy, [link][link], [link]b
transmural pressure (PTM), [link], [link]f, [link][link]
triggering
ICU ventilators, [link][link]
ineffective ventilator triggering, [link][link]
patient–ventilator asynchrony during, [link][link]
ventilators, [link], [link]f, [link]
two-compartment model of respiratory system, [link]f, [link]f, [link]f, [link]f


U
upper airway obstruction, [link], [link]t


V
user interface (ventilators), [link], [link]f, [link]b, [link][link]
VAPC (volume-assured pressure control), [link]
vasodilators, [link], [link]
vasopressors, [link]
VC (volume control) breaths, [link][link], [link]b
airway pressure and, [link]f
high airway pressure alarm, [link][link], [link]b
overview, [link]b
VC+ (volume control plus), [link]
venous admixture, [link][link], [link]f, [link]f
venous return curves, [link], [link]f
ventilation failure, [link][link], [link]t. See also [link]
ventilation–perfusion matching, [link][link]
ratios, [link]f, [link]f
schematic representation of gas exchange, [link]f
two-compartment model of respiratory system, [link]f, [link]f, [link]f, [link]f
ventilation process (respiratory mechanics), [link]
ventilator alarms, [link][link], [link]t
high airway pressure, [link][link], [link]b, [link]b
high respiratory rate, [link][link]
low airway pressure, [link]
low respiratory rate, [link]
low tidal volume, [link][link], [link]b
overview, [link], [link]b
ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), [link][link]
ventilator orders, [link]t
choosing ventilation mode, [link]
fractional inspired oxygen concentration, [link]
PEEP, [link][link]
respiratory rate, [link]
trigger sensitivity, [link]
trigger type, [link]
ventilators
choosing breath types, [link][link]
design, [link]
gas flows, [link]f
initial settings for patients with severe obstructive lung disease, [link]t
initial ventilator settings for patients with ARDS, [link]t
mechanical breaths
aPC breaths, [link][link], [link]b
aPS breaths, [link], [link]b
PC breaths, [link][link], [link][link], [link]b
PS breaths, [link][link], [link]b
VC breaths, [link][link], [link]b
when to use, [link][link]
modes
bi-level ventilation mode, [link][link], [link]b
spontaneous mode, [link]
when to use, [link][link]
noninvasive ventilation, [link][link], [link][link]
patient data, [link][link]
schematic diagram, [link]f
settings, [link][link]
adjusting, [link][link]
breath types, [link]
continuous positive airway pressure, [link][link]
cycling, [link]
driving pressure, [link]
flow profiles, [link]
flow-triggering, [link]
inspiratory time, [link], [link], [link], [link]
mandatory breaths, [link][link]
mode of ventilation, [link]
peak inspiratory flow rate, [link]
PEEP, [link][link]
plateau time, [link]
pressure-triggering, [link]
spontaneous breaths, [link]
triggering, [link]
ventilator alarms, [link][link]
ventilator-dependence, [link]t
ventilator-triggered breaths, [link], [link]f
ventilatory ability, [link][link], [link]f
ventilatory demand, [link][link], [link]f
ventilatory therapies (ARDS), [link][link]
ventricular afterload, [link][link]
ventricular contractility, [link]f, [link]
ventricular interdependence, [link][link]
ventricular preload, [link][link]
VILI (ventilator-induced lung injury), [link][link]
viscous forces
overview, [link][link]
pressure–flow relationships, [link][link]
viscous forces (PV), [link]f
volume. See also [link]
extrinsic PEEP, [link]f
intrinsic PEEP, [link]f
during passive volume control and pressure control, [link]f
during pressure control breaths, [link]f
during pressure control breaths with PEEP, [link]f
volume-assured pressure control (VAPC), [link]
volume capnography, [link], [link], [link]f
volume control breaths. See [link]
volume control plus (VC+), [link]
volume–pressure curves (mechanical ventilation), [link]f, [link]f
volume-set breaths, [link]
volume support breaths. See [link]
volume-targeted pressure control (VTPC), [link]
V/Q mismatching, [link][link]
VS (volume support) breaths
aPS breaths, [link], [link]b
defined, [link]
VTPC (volume-targeted pressure control), [link]


W
waterfall effect, [link], [link]f, [link]f
weaning process (mechanical ventilation). See [link]