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Cardiovascular–Pulmonary Interactions 

Cardiovascular–Pulmonary Interactions
Cardiovascular–Pulmonary Interactions

John W. Kreit

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date: 24 August 2019

Intramural pressures within a tube or circuit determine the rate and direction of flow, whereas the transmural pressure of an elastic structure determines its volume. In Chapter 1, we applied these principles when talking about the pressure needed to overcome viscous forces and elastic recoil during ventilation. In this chapter, we use them to explain changes in blood flow between two portions of the circulatory system and changes in the volume and size of the heart chambers. Cardio–Pulmonary Interactions provides an overview of essential cardiovascular physiology as well as an in-depth discussion of how and why changes in pleural, alveolar, lung transmural, and intra-abdominal pressure during spontaneous and mechanical ventilation can alter right and left ventricular preload, afterload, and stroke volume, cardiac output, and blood pressure. The chapter also reviews the beneficial and detrimental effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on cardiovascular function.

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