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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) 

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Chapter:
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Author(s):

John W. Kreit

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190670085.003.0012
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date: 23 August 2019

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome reviews the definitions, causes, pathophysiology, and management of this relatively common, life-threatening disorder. This chapter describes how to ensure adequate tissue oxygen delivery while minimizing ventilator-induced lung injury and provides an in-depth review of how to determine the optimum level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). The first topic addressed is the precipitating factors and pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Next the chapter turns to mechanical ventilation, and covers the subjects of adequate oxygenation, ventilator-induced lung injury, ancillary therapies, ventilatory therapies, and high I:E ventilation. The topics addressed in the area of non-ventilatory therapies include: prone positioning of the patient, neuromuscular blockade, inhaled vasodilators, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

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