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Jad M. Abdelsattar

, Moustafa M. El Khatib

, T. K. Pandian

, Samuel J. Allen

, and David R. Farley

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date: 09 May 2021

The esophagus is a hollow muscular tube approximately 25 cm in length, extending from the cricopharyngeus muscle to the gastroesophageal junction at the gastric cardia. It is the only organ that uses peristalsis. Achalasia is defined as failure of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation with concurrent esophageal aperistalsis. Esophageal manometry is the standard for diagnosing achalasia and DES. Achalasia is managed surgically with a Heller myotomy. Esophageal surgery may result in an iatrogenic perforation, thoracic duct injury, or anastomotic leak.

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