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Jad M. Abdelsattar

, Moustafa M. El Khatib

, T. K. Pandian

, Samuel J. Allen

, and David R. Farley

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date: 09 May 2021

Breast tissue develops from ectoderm, the primary mammary buds being noted during the fifth week of gestation. Glandular epithelium, stroma, and fat receive blood from the internal mammary and posterior intercostal arteries. In females, estrogen mediates ductal development. In males, androgen leads to destruction of the epithelial component of the breast bud. Most breast complaints are due to a mass, nipple discharge, or pain. Ultrasonography is useful in young women and as an adjunct to mammography. Wide local excision, mastectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and axillary dissection can be useful in men and women undergoing breast surgery. Lymphedema may occur after axillary lymph node dissection or radiation therapy.

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