Show Summary Details
Page of



Jad M. Abdelsattar

, Moustafa M. El Khatib

, T. K. Pandian

, Samuel J. Allen

, and David R. Farley

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 09 May 2021

The thyroid gland forms from endoderm beginning at gestational week 5. The butterfly-shaped thyroid gland wraps around the trachea, cricoid, and thyroid cartilages. Excess thyroxine causes hyperthyroidism and suppression of the sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone value. Hyperthyroidism may cause sweating, irritability, weight loss, and atrial fibrillation. US, nuclear imaging, and CT are useful. Collar incisions of the neck with transection of the platysma muscle, opening the median raphe, and exposing the thyroid isthmus are straightforward steps. Possible surgical complications are postoperative hematoma, RLN injury, and temporary hypoparathyroidism, and they should be avoided at all costs.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.