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Thyroid 

Thyroid
Chapter:
Thyroid
Author(s):

Jad M. Abdelsattar

, Moustafa M. El Khatib

, T. K. Pandian

, Samuel J. Allen

, and David R. Farley

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190650506.003.0018
Page of

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date: 09 May 2021

The thyroid gland forms from endoderm beginning at gestational week 5. The butterfly-shaped thyroid gland wraps around the trachea, cricoid, and thyroid cartilages. Excess thyroxine causes hyperthyroidism and suppression of the sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone value. Hyperthyroidism may cause sweating, irritability, weight loss, and atrial fibrillation. US, nuclear imaging, and CT are useful. Collar incisions of the neck with transection of the platysma muscle, opening the median raphe, and exposing the thyroid isthmus are straightforward steps. Possible surgical complications are postoperative hematoma, RLN injury, and temporary hypoparathyroidism, and they should be avoided at all costs.

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