Show Summary Details
Page of

Twists and Turns 

Twists and Turns
Twists and Turns

Susan H. Fox

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 12 April 2021

Focal dystonia is the most common clinical manifestation of primary dystonia. The focal and sometimes task-specific nature of the symptoms makes daily drug therapy less attractive due to a requirement for exposure to high doses of anticholinergic agents that are typically only minimally effective. Botulinum toxin therapy can be targeted to a specific muscle group that is judged to be most active, providing relief for 3 months although not necessarily modifying the underlying disease pathophysiology, which remains uncertain. Deep-brain stimulation is currently reserved for the most resistant cases in which the disability or pain derived from the dystonia justifies consideration of neurosurgery.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.