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Enterovirus and Parechovirus 

Enterovirus and Parechovirus
Enterovirus and Parechovirus

Kevin Messacar

and Mark J. Abzug

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date: 06 March 2021

Enteroviruses (EVs) comprise a genus in the Picornaviridae family. They are single-stranded RNA viruses and are common causes of human infection. Polioviruses, the prototypic EVs, were historically responsible for widespread outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis; now they are on the verge of global elimination through vaccination. More than 100 serotypes of nonpoliovirus EVs are described and are associated with a wide variety of diseases, ranging from respiratory infections, nonspecific febrile illnesses, herpangina, and hand-foot-and-mouth disease to meningitis, encephalitis, paralytic disease, myocarditis, chronic or disseminated infection in immunocompromised hosts (particularly those with defects in the humoral immune response), and severe disease in neonates. This chapter reviews disease manifestations during pregnancy and in neonates, with an emphasis on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management. The newly emerging parechoviruses, important causes of central nervous system (CNS) disease, are also reviewed.

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