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Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum 

Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum
Chapter:
Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum
Author(s):

Rose M. Viscardi

and Ken B. Waites

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780190604813.003.0022
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date: 19 October 2019

The Mycoplasma species Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum colonize the human adult urogenital tract and are not typically associated with disease. Perinatal transmission, however, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm birth, chorioamnionitis, and other complications of extreme prematurity, including neonatal pneumonitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), meningitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This chapter reviews the biology of these organisms. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting a role for ureaplasmas in the pathogenesis of neonatal disease, clinical manifestations of infection in the infant, current microbiologic diagnostic methods, and the present status of treatment options are reviewed. Macrolide antibiotic therapy is controversial for infected infants, and current concepts regarding candidates for treatment are discussed. Key unanswered questions that need to be addressed in future research studies are also suggested.

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